Was curious about the ‘apparel’ thing. 1 Timothy 2:9-10 NIV -- I also want women to dress modestly with decency and propriety, not with braided hair or [the word ‘and’ is in the Greek here, not ‘or’] gold or pearls or expensive clothes, but with good deeds, appropriate for women who profess to worship God. KJV – In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array; But (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works. Word used for clothes/apparel in the KJV: katastole Strong’s definition: from ‘katastello’; a deposit, i.e. (spec.) costume: -- apparel katastello – to put down, i.e. quell: appease, quiet. And THAT word is also a combination of other words. What is interesting is that in an older manuscript, from which the NIV was translated, the word in that verse is himatismos, used only five times in the New Testament in that form, but coming from the more commonly used himation, which is used 61 times, and which the NIV translates as ‘clothes’ (23 times), ‘cloak’ (13 times), ‘cloaks’ (7 times), ‘garment’ (6 times), ‘robe’ (4 times), ‘garments’ (2 times), and ‘clothing’, ‘dressed’ (in conjunction with another word), ‘one’ (used as a pronoun), ‘stripped’ (in conjunction with two other words), and untranslated each one time. I checked a Luke reference in which the word himatismos is used. It is Luke 7:25, which, in context, reads as follows What did you go out into the desert to see? [Jesus is here referring to John the Baptist] A reed swayed by the wind? If not, what did you go out to see? A man dressed in fine clothes [himation]? No, those who wear expensive clothes [himatismos] and indulge in luxury are in palaces. Evidently, then, in this older mss, the word used in 1 Timothy refers to expensive and fine clothing, not referencing whether or not it is loose and flowing or gathered or anything else. I cross-checked Luke 7:25 to see how the King James dealt with it. Here is their translation, again in context: But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? Behold, they which are gorgeously appareled, and live delicately, are in kings’ courts. checking each of the words there in turn: clothed – ‘amphiennumi’ – to enrobe or clothe raiment – ‘himation’ – apparel, cloak, clothes, garment, vesture, raiment, robe appareled – ‘himatismos ‘ – array, raiment, vesture Seeing now that himatismos and himation could both be used for masculine as well as feminine apparel, I wanted to track down the word the KJV text had in 1 Timothy: katastole. The word simply means ‘modestly’ with no mention of the word ‘apparel’ in the Greek manuscript there! I went to the NIV parallel to look at the Greek for myself: Here is the literal translation: Similarly women in clothing orderly, with modesty and sobriety to adorn themselves, not with plaiting and gold or pearls or raiment costly, but what suits women professing reverence, by means of works good. So I went on to the only other mention of women in apparel in the NT, and that is 1 Peter 3:3. Here it is in the King James, in context: Likewise, ye wives, be in subjection to your own husbands; that, if any obey not the word, they also may without the word be won by the conversation of the wives; While they behold your chaste conversation [coupled] with fear. Whose adorning let it not be that outward [adorning] of plaiting the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel… OK, this is apparel a woman should NOT put on. The word here is himation – evidently a reference again to expensive and fine clothing. In other words, there is NO word that translates ‘apparel’ in the King James in the 1 Timothy verse, and the admonition is to be modest and sober in clothing. And in the 1 Peter verse, the admonition is NOT to put on expensive clothes! That sort of changes things! There is no implication whatsoever that I could find that indicates that any word used in either of those two verses means something loose and flowing. Modesty can, in other words, be just as much a pair of loose pants as a flowing gown or dress. In short, there is no indication anywhere in the Bible that says women should be in dresses. Ever. At any time. We are to be modest and feminine and not wear fancy expensive clothes but let our good deeds show our character.