Can "against" be used in archaic sense?

Discussion in 'Bible Versions/Translations' started by Logos1560, Jul 6, 2008.

  1. Logos1560

    Logos1560
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    In appendix no. five in his book entitled Problem Texts, Peter Ruckman maintained "that there are less than thirty words that a high school student couldn't guess correctly" (p. 422).

    In this appendix, Ruckman stated that "we will list some of these archaic words" (p. 422).

    Ruckman lists 21 words, and surprisingly "against" is one of the words on his list.

    In the 2008 Catalog for Ruckman's Bible Baptist Bookstore, there is included "Dr. Ruckman's Recommended Reading List" (p. 7). On that recommended reading list, number two is the book Archaic Words and the AV by Laurence M. Vance. In the introduction to his book, Vance asserted that his book provides "an explicit and comprehensive examination of every word in the Authorized Version of the Bible that has been deemed archaic, obsolete, antiquated, or otherwise outmoded" (p. x). [bold added by this poster]

    While Vance listed over 700 words in his book, it is interesting that Peter Ruckman in his brief 21 word list would include some words not listed in Vance's book that is supposed to include every word in the KJV that has been deemed archaic. Some words in Ruckman's short 21 word list not in Vance's book include "affect," "apparently," "battle," and "against."

    Can you think of any times where the KJV may use the word "against" in an archaic sense?
     
    #1 Logos1560, Jul 6, 2008
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  2. rsr

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    Against as a conjunction meaning in preparation for the time when (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary).

    Exodus 7:15:

    Or Exodus 19:14-16:

     
  3. Logos1560

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    Yes, I have found mention of "against" at Exodus 7:15 as an archaic use. Peter Ruckman gave only one example, but it seems that there are several of them. Ruckman listed against as an archaic word that “can mean ‘at the time of’ or ‘by the time that’ (Num. 25:4)” (Problem Texts, p. 423).


    Bridges and Weigle asserted that against occasionally “has an obsolete sense” in the KJV (KJB Word Book, p. 10). Brown’s Dictionary of the Bible indicated that against in the KJV at 2 Kings 16:11 has the meaning “by the time when” and at Numbers 8:2 the meaning “directly facing” (p. 37). In his 1828 Dictionary, Noah Webster gave the following definition for the KJV’s use of against at 2 Kings 16: “in provision for; in preparation for.“ Cloud’s Concise KJB Dictionary defined “against he come” at Exodus 7:15 as “to meet him.“ At this verse, the 1560 Geneva Bible has “meet him” instead of the Bishops‘ rendering “against he come.“ Bridges and Weigle noted that “a curious use of ‘against’ in a sense relating to time or preparation occurs in Genesis 43:25, ‘against Joseph came’” (KJB Word Book, p. 11). At Numbers 8:2, the Geneva and Bishops’ Bibles have “toward the forefront of” where the KJV has “over against.“ Other examples of archaic uses may be Exodus 19:11 [“against the third day”], Joshua 7:13 [“against to morrow”], and 1 Samuel 25:20 [“came down against her”].


    By the way, there are also some places where one of the pre-1611 English Bibles used "against" in an archaic sense and the KJV updated it.

    At 2 Kings 16:10, the 1537 Matthew’s Bible used against in an archaic sense [“king Ahaz went against Teglath Phalasar king of Assyria, to Damasco”] where the KJV has updated it [“king Ahaz went to Damascus to meet Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria”]. The KJV also updated the Bishops’ Bible’s renderings “against me” (Jud. 11:31), “come not against thee” (Ruth 2:22), “went against him” (1 Sam. 13:10), “came against him” (2 Sam. 15:32), “coming against him” (2 Kings 10:15), “against the Ammonites“ (Ezek. 25:10), and “against Jerusalem“ (Zech. 14:14).
     
  4. rsr

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    The use of over against to mean directly facing or opposite is common in the KJV and is still in contemporary usage.

    I think, however, that there is a whiff of archaism about it and it's found usually in very formal writing.
     
  5. Gwyneth

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    For the which cause I suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that He is able, to keep that which I have committed unto Him against that day.

    2 Timothy chapter 1 verse 12.

    A poster on BB uses part of this verse in his signature .
     
    #5 Gwyneth, Jul 7, 2008
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  6. Salamander

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    :laugh: To think there may be a whiff one must be able to first sniff.
     
  7. Logos1560

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    Some uses of "against" in the 1568 Bishops' Bible that were updated or revised in the KJV.

    Gen. 24:65
    walking against us in the field (Bishops)
    walketh in the field to meet us (KJV)

    Judges 11:31
    against me (Bishops)
    to meet me (KJV)

    Ruth 2:22
    come not against thee (Bishops)
    meet thee not (KJV)

    1 Samuel 13:10
    Saul went against him (Bishops)
    Saul went out to meet him (KJV)

    2 Samuel 15:32
    came against him (Bishops)
    came to meet him (KJV)

    2 Kings 10:15
    coming against him (Bishops)
    coming to meet him (KJV)

    Ezekiel 25:10
    against the Ammonites (Bishops)
    with the Ammonites (KJV)

    Ezekiel 32:10
    against their faces (Bishops)
    before them (KJV)

    Zech. 14:14
    against Jerusalem (Bishops)
    at Jerusalem (KJV)
     
  8. robycop3

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    Here's a case in the KJV where 'against' is used in the same verse, but with different meanings:

    2 Chronicles 35:20
    After all this, when Josiah had prepared the temple, Necho king of Egypt came up to fight against Charchemish by Euphrates: and Josiah went out against him.

    Historical facts show that the Assyrian empire was then on its last legs, and that they'd moved their capitol from Nineveh to Carchemish, which they were preparing to defend against the Babylonian army under Nabopolasser & his son Nebuchadnezzar. Necho, who had peace with the Assyrians, marched to help them, while Josiah, who hated Assyria, didn't want anyone to help them, and thus tried to stop Necho. Josiah didn't believe Necho had been sent by God, as his messenger had said. While the Jews couldn't stop the Egyptians, they delayed them enough that the Babs were able to defeat the Assyrians & thus have their whole army free to fight Necho when he finally did arrive at Carchemish. The Babs soundly defeated the Egyptians also. This was the end of the Assyrian Empire, as they shortly made peace with Babylon & became their vassals.

    So, we see the KJV using 'against' twice in the same verse, with a different meaning each time. This reading has confused more than one modern reader, leading him/her to believe Necho was marching to attack Carchemish, rather than intending to help its Assyrian defenders.
     

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