In an attempt to help everyone understand the variety of terms being "thrown around" on the threads, here are some basic definitions: LIBERALISM = Many "Christian" denominations actually deny one or more of the fundamental doctrines of the Word of God, such as revelation, inspiration, creation and fall of man, all miracles, incarnation and virgin birth, atonement of Jesus, bodily resurrection, triune godhead, salvation by grace through faith, reality of heaven or hell. With the advent of Darwinism and Higher Criticism in the 1850's many European seminaries dismissed all conservative doctrine as "myth". Its teachers trained the pastors for mainline Christian churches, leading to skepticism and rejection of traditional Christianity. It filtered down to the average church member following World War II and is the basis of the "social gospel" of human works. MODERNISM = In the light of science, Church must take a highly critical view of revelation, inspiration, creation and fall of man, historic reality of Jesus. Beginning in AD 1900 as a "modernization" of old religious views, it is popular with the liturgical churches. Their theologians are Karl Barth, Reinhold Neibuhr, P. Tillich who hold radical theological views NEO-ORTHODOXY = A reaction to theological liberalism and modernism taking control of entire denominations, neo-orthodoxy attempts to reintroduce a transcendent God, responsibility of man's sin and guilt, uniqueness of Christ's grace, and natural/supernatural revelation. This group uses Biblical themes of the Reformation without defining them. What is "grace"? What does "inspiration" mean? Using orthodox terms without meaning allowed them to be accepted by all. EVANGELICALISM = Commitment to the fundamental doctrines of the Gospel as basis for mission, devoted to the revelation in the Bible as truth and the redemptive work of Christ and acceptance of everyone who claims to be Christian as equal and acceptable. Most "dissenters" held to this basic position and left their liberal, modernistic, neo-orthodox main-line denominations. Between AD 1890-1950 this attitude separated believers from non-believers and gave rise to Bible Presbyterian, Free Methodist, Baptist ascendancy. NEW EVANGELICALISM = A rethinking of separation from liberalism, and willingness to dialog on issues of inspiration, atonement, creation, miracles. This led to compromise and replacing evangelical terms with non-offensive generics (commitment replaced "born again"; death for "blood"), gaining liberal denominational approval. In the 1950's there arose those willing to compromise the historic evangelical position while continuing to use its name (with new definitions). This led to Ecumenical Evangelism and seeking to gain acceptance with liberalism and scholasticism. Billy Graham is a foremost example. FUNDAMENTALISM = A conservative movement attempting to return denominations to their historic doctrine of inspiration and authority of the Bible, and the virgin birth, sinless life, atoning death, bodily resurrection and second coming of Christ. True fundamentalist also hold an intolerant position on separation from liberalism and unbelief (first degree) and from evangelicals who compromise or work with unbelievers (second degree). Rising to prominence in the 1920's in direct opposition to modernism, fundamentalists appeared in every denomination trying to stop liberalism. None gained control; many new groups and associations based on the fundamentalist position were formed. Continual infighting over cultural non-issues (clothes, busing, bible versions) and filial fragmentization has caused this movement to lose almost all effectiveness and outreach. NEO-PENTECOSTALISM = An outgrowth of the Holiness Movement within Methodism in 1910, the modern Charismatic Pentecostal movement is trans-denominational and based on feeling and experience (tongues, healing, prophecy) rather than dogma or historic doctrine. Old-fashioned holiness is often overlooked in seeking the spectacular "gifts". With subjective revelation (God's Word for "you" is more important than the Bible) and doctrinal irrelevance (it doesn't matter if you are Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant or Hindu - "gifts" are all that matter) this movement has gone beyond the fundamentals to cult-like positions. CULTS = Assuming new revelation from God and new way of living for adherents, Christianity has produced many cults that reject basic doctrine and supplement it with propositional truth from other sources. Almost all center around a charismatic leader or influential personage. Rutherford's Jehovah's Witnesses deny God the Son, prophecy, most doctrine, salvation by faith. Smith's Mormon teaching adds many books to the Bible, denies all three persons of the Godhead, false prophecy. Moon's Unification Church accepts him as Messiah having written a new Bible and denying almost every doctrine of Christianity. Eddy's Christian Science bases teaching on new revelation, denying sin, the godhead, evil. Russell's Adventist groups pervert prophecy, add legalism to Christianity, and works to salvation.