Rom. 11:6 And if by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is no more work. Paul uses the preposition "ek" rather than "apo" in providing a definitive line between grace and works. The primary distinction between "ek" and "apo" is that "ek" has reference to something that originates from within something whereas "apo" primarily refers to something that originates outside of something. If something is "by grace" it cannot contain anything that originates from within "works" or "out of" works otherwise grace is no more grace. Likewise, if it is "by works" it cannot contain anything that originates from within grace or "out of" grace or otherwise it is no more works. The saved/justified "by works" view directly contradict this latter denial by Paul. This view interprets "by works" to mean works that originate from within grace or "out of grace" or grace produced works. Paul flatly denies this. In context, grace refers to something that is exclusively the work of God alone as in "election OF GRACE" (v. 5) which Paul previously denies includes anything occurring after human birth (Rom. 9:11) including the exercise of the human will (Rom. 9:17). Moreover, grace is defined as something that by nature is FREE or a gift without any motivating merits found within the object of Grace but IN SPITE OF what is merited by that object (Rom. 3;24). The very same word translated "freely" is translated "without a cause" in describing the hatred of men toward Christ - there was no CAUSE in Christ to produce the hatred. Hence, there is no cause in sinners (Rom. 3:23) to produce God's justification of sinners (Rom. 3:24). Hence, Grace is strictly God's work upon something while excluding all works provided by anyone other than God.