I finally got around to doing a little digging concerning the relative support of the early church councils. I think the following info speaks somewhat clearly about how much support was given by the church as a whole to the various councils. Here are the councils and their attendance: 1st Council of Nicea, 325 AD: 318 bishops. Council of Chalcedon, 451 AD: 600 bishops. Council of Orange, 529 AD: 14 bishops 2nd Constantinople, 553 AD: 165 bishops (in the last session) 2nd Council of Nicea, 787 AD: 330 to 360 bishops. The Council of Orange in 529 did indeed condemn semi-pelagianism, and affirmed that grace operates first, which then results in justification, and a host of other benefits. It also affirmed that grace and justification are conferred in infant baptism, and all who get this grace through infant baptism are able to do enough good works to eventually be saved. It was used in drafting the statement at the Council of Trent. Personally, I'm not putting a lot of support for the conclusions drawn by Orange.