I believe Satans reaction to the Great Awakenings in the United States in the 1700's was liberalism spawned in America by those primarily graduating from German seminaries of higher criticism. In the late 1940's another movement arose that determined to infiltrate liberal Christianity instead of separating from it as the Bible clearly teaches. This movement was sphereheaded by Billy Graham and his crusades which invited liberal Christian leaders to take part in his crusades. Some call it "neo-evanglicalism." Fundementalism was a response to neo-evanglicalism and their anti-Biblical principle of incoporation with heretics instead of separation.