Greek Tenses and OSAS

Discussion in 'Other Christian Denominations' started by ascund, Sep 12, 2005.

  1. ascund

    ascund
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    Greetings

    The Greek language is rather specific in the support of OSAS. Greek does this positively through the Perfect Tense and negatively through its emphatic denials.

    A. Verses that use the Greek Perfect Tense.

    “The Greek Perfect Tense denotes the present state resultant upon a past action” (Machen, New Testament Greek for Beginners, p187).

    “The perfect tense is the tense of complete action. Its basal significance is the progress of an act or state to a point of culmination and the existence of its finished results. That is, it views action as a finished product. … It implies a process, but views that process as having reached its consummation and existing in a finished state” (Dana and Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament, p200).

    We must notice that the Greek Perfect Tense has no implications that the continued action of a past result will cease. The English words that are used to translate the Greek Perfect in the following passages are bolded. These words carry the idea of a continued, completed, consummated, unending state.

    “That which is born of the Spirit is spirit” John 3:6. This certifies that once one is born of the Spirit, then the results of this birth continue unendingly!

    “A man can receive nothing unless it has been given to him from heaven” John 3:27. This certifies that once God has given salvation, then the results of this giving continue unendingly!

    “he who hears my word and believes in Him who sent me has everlasting life, and shall not come into judgment, but has passed from death into life” John 5:24. This verifies that the act of passing from death to life continues unendingly!

    “And we have come to believe and know that You are the Christ” John 6:69. This confirms that the position of believing continues for ever!

    “My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of My Father’s hand” John 10:39. This corroborates the result of being given by God continues eternally!

    So just before Jesus died he cried out “It is finished!” John 19:30. This shows that Christ’s accomplishments on the cross endure forever and they don’t need to be lost and reapplied.

    “Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our lord Jesus Christ, through whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God” Romans 5:1,2. This verifies that our access to God endures unendingly. It also confirms that our standing in grace continues eternally!

    “For he who has died has been freed [justified] from sin” Romans 6:7. This validates that our freedom from sin (justification) continues without abatement!

    “To the church of God which is at Corinth to those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus” 1 Corinthians 1:2. This shows that sanctification never ceases!

    “But God, who is rich in mercy, because of His great love with which He loved us, even when we were dead in trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved)” Ephesians 2:4,5. This declares that the result of salvation is eternally unending!

    “For by grace you have been saved through faith” Ephesians 2:8. This emphasizes that salvation is once for all!

    “That Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; that you, being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all the saints . . .” Ephesians 3:17. This shows that our salvation is eternally rooted and grounded!

    “Therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, put on tender mercies . . .” Colossians 3:12. This shows that our being loved by God will continue unendingly!

    “This is a faithful saying, and these things I want you to affirm constantly, that those who have believed in God should be careful to maintain good works” Titus 3:8. The ace of believing continues on forever.

    “By that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all” Hebrews 10:10. This verse has two ways of emphasizing eternal security. First, the Greek perfect affirms that our sanctification is an eternal process. Second, the author ends the verse with a “once for all” phrase to further underscore the certainty of the statement.

    “to an inheritance incorruptible an undefiled and that does not fade away, reserved in heaven for you” 1 Peter 1:4. Not only does God make the reservation, but he never cancels it either!

    “having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the word of God which lives and abides forever” 1 Peter 1:23. The act of being born again continues unendingly!

    “To those who are called, sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ” Jude 2. This insists that our sanctification continues unendingly and that we are preserved in Christ unfalteringly forever!


    B. The double negative is used to highlight or underscore the impossibility of the stated action occurring. “The combination of the double negative occurs 96 times. With the light that the papyri have thrown upon this doubling of the negatives we can now say unreservedly that the negatives were doubled for the purpose of stating denials or prohibitions emphatically. … people used the doubling of negatives for making categorical and emphatic denials” Dana & Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament, p266,267.

    “I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never [never] hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never [never] thirst” John 6:35.

    I give them eternal life, and they shall never [never] perish; neither shall anyone snatch them out of my hand” John 10:28.

    “And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never [never] die” John 11:36.

    “For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no [no] more” Hebrews 8:12.

    For Jesus himself said, “I will never [never] leave you nor [never] forsake you” Hebrews 13:5.


    There is no counterpoint to the Greek Perfect Tense. No theologian knowledgeable of Greek should be a proponent against the “once saved – always saved” eternal life!

    A little bit of Greek goes a long way!
    Lloyd
     
  2. ascund

    ascund
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    Greetings

    Consider John 10:27-29/

    God uses the most powerful Greek constructs to emphasize the impossibility of about getting out (or even thinking about getting out) of His hands.

    The double negative with subjunctive.
    Most Arminians stop thier investigation with the present tense. They fail to mention ou me apoloontai (they shall never perish). This phrase uses a double negative and the aorist subjunctive which means that when they are used together it is the most emphatic denial that the Greek can use.

    First, the double negative ou me is used to highlight or underscore the impossibility of the stated action occurring.
    The double negative stresses the total absence of what it negates.

    Second, while the simple present mood denotes reality the simple subjunctive mood denotes a step away from reality into probability. While the negative of the present denies reality, the negative of the subjunctive denies even a step away from reality. Together, the double negative with the aorist subjunctive has the force of a categorical and emphatic denial.

    Wallace says that ou me with the subjunctive “rules out even the idea as being a possibility.” [Wallace, Beyond the Basics, 468.]

    The Greek language is doing everything possible to make a categorical timeless denial that one can get out of Jesus’ hand. Not only can one never again perish, YOU CAN'T EVEN THINK ABOUT IT! How much clearer does it have to be!!

    If you look at the total context, you’ll not be deceived by partial explanations. Greek knowledge can really help differentiate between right and wrong – if one’s personal dogma does not interfere.

    John 10:28 can really be a powerful OSAS tool!
    Lloyd
     
  3. ascund

    ascund
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    Greetings

    Here is (nearly) everyone's favorite passage: John 3:16! The Arminian presentation is woefully inadequate for two reasons. First, there is a terrible disregard for context – again! The text is the ending of Jesus’ discourse with Nicodemus. Everything in the entire discussion relates to eternal security by a simple LOOK of faith to Jesus. Second, although the Arminian Greek presentation appears valid, the non-Greek cannot be expected to know that there is much more to the present tense than what is presented by Arminians!

    Arminians greatly err by forcing every present tense to be a progressive, continuous action when the Present Tense could have several meanings. Their view wrongly holds to only one meaning and forces this faulty Greek understanding upon every possible text. As already shown above, the context dictates LOOK and LIVE and the grammar dictates a timeless GNOMIC truth for when-ever, where-ever and who-ever will believe in Jesus.

    Beginners assume that the unaffected action of a given verb is to be used mindlessly in every context. Second year Greek students know that there is a genuine difference between the aspect (grammar) and aktionsart. Aktionsart begins with the aspect of basic lexical meaning, then considers other grammatical features, and then utilizes contextual keys. So if one merely discusses tenses, then one is locked into the basic idea of aspect. But if one is aware of the aktionsart, then one is able to deal with the categories of usage within the tenses.

    I have never read an Arminian article that makes good use of context in theologically important passages. I doubt if I ever will. Context is a great light and heresies flee from the light.

    The present tense has three broad categories: narrow, broad, and special uses. The Narrow Band categories are taught in first year Greek with special emphasis upon the progressive present. But even first year Greek grammars teach about the Instantaneous present where action is depicted as a punctiliar event. Machen’s beginning Greek text shows that louw can mean either "I loose" or "I am loosing." The Arminian error always assumes the latter.

    The Broad Band category deals with events that occur over a long period of time or sequences. The Gnomic Present is of special interest in this category. It represents a general timeless fact. It does not say that something is happening, but that something does happen. The action continues without time limits. … This usage is common. A key to recognizing the Gnomic Present is a generic subject or object. Furthermore, the general formula is ho + present participle.

    The Special Use category has five uses not common to the Narrow or Broad Band categories. The Perfective Present is used to emphasize that the past action result is still continuing in the present. This has almost the same force as a perfect tense.

    The continuous progressive present is a good guide for beginning Greek students. It is a lazy and most unreliable guide for serious biblical exegesis.


    LLOYD
     
  4. Charles Meadows

    Charles Meadows
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    I tend to agree with Stanley Porter on the tense/time thing. I think we need to be very careful about using "Greek tenses" to support things like eternal security - this almost always ends up in eisegesis.

    The best way to look at Greek tenses is to see that they reflect the point of view of the speaker - they convery verbal aspect and not temporal situation.

    “That which is born of the Spirit is spirit” John 3:6. This certifies that once one is born of the Spirit, then the results of this birth continue unendingly!

    I would have to disagree that this offers any information about the state ceasing. The perfect tense conveys stative aspect, showing that the subject is in a state of something havingbeen done, and situating it in the forefront of the sentence.

    There has been a lot written about tenses in the past generation or so. The grammarians of the late 19th century and early 20th century tended to confuse aspect with aktionsart, and tended to see Greek in a Latin-based frame.

    I'd recommend Stanley Porter, Rodney Decker, D.A. Carson, Buist Fanning or perhaps Daniel Wallace.
     
  5. 1jim

    1jim
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    Hi ascund,


    ascund:

    “That which is born of the Spirit is spirit” John 3:6. This certifies that once one is born of the Spirit, then the results of this birth continue unendingly!


    Jim:

    “to gegennhmenon [ek tou pneumatoV] (that which is born [out of the Spirit])” is a substantival (functioning as a noun) articular (having an article) participle (SAP) in the present tense. It expresses an action that identifies the referent (the idea to which it refers). It is typically gnomic (timeless); it doesn’t say that the action is now happening or that it continuously happens. It simply makes a general statement of action for identification purposes. There is no perfect tense here.

    For example, “o katabainwn [ek tou ouranou] (that/the one which comes down [out of heaven])” in John 6:33 refers to Jesus’ first advent, and it identifies Jesus, who came down out of heaven. The action of coming down out of heaven had occurred in the past and it did not continue to occur. Neither did Jesus continue to remain on earth; He ascended back to His heavenly point of origin.

    So a present-tense SAP (substantival articular participle) is typically gnomic (timeless). It’s purpose is simply to identify the referent of the SAP. It typically says nothing about when the action occurs or whether the action continues to occur.

    In the first half of John 3:6, Jesus says, “to gegennhmenon ek thV sarkoV sarx estin (that which is born out of the flesh is flesh).” Then, in the second half of the verse, He says, “kai to gegennhmenon ek tou pneumatoV pneuma estin (and that which is born out of the Spirit is spirit).” If your assertion regarding the second half of this verse, that it “certifies that once one is born of the Spirit, then the results of this birth continue unendingly,” were correct, then the first half of this verse would likewise certify that once one is born of the flesh, then the results of this birth continue unendingly. However, the flesh does not continue unendingly. We die and the flesh turns to dust. Further, flesh and blood does not inherit the kingdom of God, therefore believers are “changed” in the resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:50-51).

    So John 3:6 does not actually express what you’ve interpreted it to express. You've misidentified the tense, and you've read much more into it than it actually says.


    Jim
     
  6. Gerhard Ebersoehn

    Gerhard Ebersoehn
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    Quoting Ascund (Lloyd) from his first post on this thread, "There is no counterpoint to the Greek Perfect Tense. No theologian knowledgeable of Greek should be a proponent against the “once saved – always saved” eternal life!
    A little bit of Greek goes a long way!"

    Beautiful! Brave! I salute you!
    But please forgive me for asking (I won't again refer to it again unless you wish), Go and apply that post JUST SO to the word 'synehgmenohn' in Acts 20:7, and see what is the implication!
     
  7. Gerhard Ebersoehn

    Gerhard Ebersoehn
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    Please also read my posts on the thread 'An Adventist Question' - a perfect Atonement made by Christ in resurrection.
     
  8. 1jim

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    Hi ascund,


    ascund:

    We must notice that THE GREEK PERFECT TENSE has no implications that the continued action of a past result (I think you mean the continued result of a past action – Jim) will cease. ... These words CARRY THE IDEA OF a continued, completed, consummated, UNENDING STATE.


    (ASV) Mark 9:17 And one of the multitude answered him, Teacher, I brought unto thee MY SON, WHO HATH A DUMB SPIRIT; 18 and wheresoever it taketh him, it dasheth him down: and he foameth, and grindeth his teeth, and pineth away ... 21 And he asked his father, How long time is it since THIS HATH COME (PERFECT INDICATIVE) UNTO HIM? And he said, From a child. ... 25 And when Jesus saw that a multitude came running together, HE REBUKED THE UNCLEAN SPIRIT, SAYING UNTO HIM, THOU DUMB AND DEAF SPIRIT, I COMMAND THEE, COME OUT OF HIM, AND ENTER NO MORE INTO HIM. 26 And having cried out, and torn him much, HE CAME OUT: and [the boy] became as one dead; insomuch that the more part said, He is dead. 27 But Jesus took him by the hand, and raised him up; and he arose.


    Jim:

    The perfect tense expresses a past action with a continuing result. However, the continuity of the result is not necessarily endless. In the above example, the spirit or condition “has come” (perfect indicative verb) to the boy. If the continuity of the result of this action were endless, then the spirit or condition could never leave the boy. However, Jesus forces the spirit or condition to leave the boy. Thus, the perfect tense does not guarantee that the result of the past action is endless.


    Jim
     
  9. Gerhard Ebersoehn

    Gerhard Ebersoehn
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    Exactly, and for certain reason as well! Greek is a very 'precise' language, as you must have read several great scholars have noticed.
     
  10. BobRyan

    BobRyan
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    The actual texts that stress and debunk the speculative conjecture that leads to OSAS include the following --

    Matt 18. Ezekiel 18, Gal 5 and Heb 6

    And all the texts give so far on the need to "persevere" and "endure firm until the end". (Doctrines denied by Lloyd so far).

    No amount of "tensing" in Matt 18 has solved the problem - as the post history shows and as Lloyd's avoidance of Matt 18 shows. In Matt 18 we have the SAME lesson on "forgiveness revoked" that we saw in Ezek 18. It is the same concept of "fallen from Grace" that we see in Gal 5.

    It is all there and as Paul says in 1Cor 6 "Be not deceived" into thinking that these detailed examples are "fake" or are "false potentials" or are "warnings about nothing".

    They are real.

    In Christ,

    Bob
     
  11. 1jim

    1jim
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    Hi ascund,


    ascund:

    “To the church of God which is at Corinth to those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus” 1 Corinthians 1:2. This shows that sanctification never ceases!


    Jim:

    1 Corinthians 1:2 th ekklhsia tou qeou th oush en korinqw, hgiasmenoiV en cristw ihsou ... (to the church [dative feminine singular noun] of God, that which [dative feminine singular article] is [dative feminine singular present active participle] in Corinth, CONSECRATED [DATIVE MASCULINE PLURAL PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE FUNCTIONING AS AN ADJECTIVE DESCRIBING THE BELIEVERS, HENCE THE MASCULINE PLURAL FORM] in Christ Jesus ...)

    A perfect passive participle often functions like an adjective. It simply describes the condition of its referent. It does not suggest that this condition is endless.

    Ephesians 2:12 oti hte tw kairw ekeinw cwriV cristou, aphllotriwmenoi thV politeiaV tou israhl kai xenoi twn diaqhkwn thV epaggeliaV (that YOU WERE AT THAT TIME separate from Christ, ALIENATED [perfect passive participle functioning like an adjective] FROM THE CITIZENSHIP OF ISRAEL and strangers from the covenants of the promise) ... 2:19 ara oun ouketi este xenoi kai paroikoi, alla este sumpolitai twn agiwn kai oikeioi tou qeou (so them YOU ARE NO LONGER strangers and NON-CITIZENS, but you are the saints’ fellow citizens and family members of God)

    Here, the believers to whom Paul is writing are described (BY A PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE) to have been ALIENATED from the citizenship of Israel prior to their salvation but stated to be now no longer non-citizens. Their pre-salvation condition described by the perfect passive participle ended when they became believers in Christ.


    ascund:

    “But God, who is rich in mercy, because of His great love with which He loved us, even when we were dead in trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been SAVED)” Ephesians 2:4,5. This declares that the result of salvation is eternally unending!

    “For by grace you have been SAVED through faith” Ephesians 2:8. This emphasizes that salvation is once for all!

    “That Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; that you, being ROOTED and GROUNDED in love, may be able to comprehend with all the saints . . .” Ephesians 3:17. This shows that our salvation is eternally rooted and grounded!

    “Therefore, as the elect of God, HOLY AND BELOVED, put on tender mercies . . .” Colossians 3:12. This shows that our being loved by God will continue unendingly!


    Jim:

    These likewise are examples of perfect passive participles functioning like adjectives. The perfect passive participle simply describes the condition of the people. It does not suggest that this condition is unending. In Colossians 3:12, the adjective “agioi” (holy) and the perfect passive participle “hgaphmenoi” (beloved) function side by side in the same capacity as adjectives describing the believers to whom Paul is writing. The perfect passive participle “beloved” no more indicates an unending condition than the adjective “holy” does.


    ascund:

    “By that will WE HAVE BEEN SANCTIFIED through THE OFFERING OF THE BODY OF JESUS CHRIST ONCE FOR ALL” Hebrews 10:10. This verse has two ways of emphasizing eternal security. First, the Greek perfect affirms that our sanctification is an eternal process. Second, the author ends the verse with a “once for all” phrase to further underscore the certainty of the statement.


    Jim:

    This is another example of a perfect passive participle: “HGIASMENOI esmen (CONSECRATED we are). The phrase “once for all” applies to the offering of the body of Christ, not to the consecration.

    Revelation 20:4 kai eidon ... taV yucaV twn pepelekismenwn ... kai ezhsan kai ebasileusan meta tou cristou cilia eth (And I saw ... the souls of the ones who had been beheaded [perfect passive participle] ... and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years)

    Here, their condition of being beheaded is not unending, unless they were resurrected without a head.


    Jim
     
  12. ascund

    ascund
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    Hey Gerhard

    Thanks for the kind comment. I've taken a lot of heat from the back rows recently. I even appreciate the way you frame your challenge to my interpretation of the perfect tense! [​IMG]

    Ok. Here is my try. The perfect tense indicates continuance of action. Technically, one must automatically assume an eternal state. The perfect tense just notes that the results of a past action are in continued force in the present.

    However, functionally it can mean eternal. If the ongoing state is not countermanded, then the reader is left with an historic book that is applicable for all time with the recorded state of a continued effect of a past action.

    Acts 20:7 follows this idea. The verb synegmenon is a perfect passive participle. The results of a past act continue with force. The disciples met on the first day of the week for normal preaching and worship. Because Paul was there, they continued. Context supplies the countermand "and continued his speech until midnight." Hence, the continuing effects of perfect passive past action cease.

    1jim is wrong. Technically, he is right because his analysis comes from a study of language limited to conversations between finite individuals. He fails to grasp the force of the perfect tense given by God Himself in an Historic Document that speaks unendingly throughout all eternity.

    Context rules!
    Lloyd
     
  13. 1jim

    1jim
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    The force of the perfect tense is simply that it describes an event that, completed in the past (we are speaking of the perfect indicative here), has results existing in the present time (i.e., in relation to the time of the speaker). Or, as Zerwick puts it, the perfect tense is used for “indicating not the past action as such but the present ‘state of affairs’ resulting from the past action.” BDF suggest that the perfect tense “combines in itself, so to speak, the present and the aorist in that it denotes the continuance of completed action....” Chamberlain goes too far when he suggests that the perfect sometimes is used to “describe an act that has ABIDING results.” The implication that “the perfect TELLS you that the event occurred and STILL HAS significant results” goes beyond grammar and is therefore misleading. Even more misleading is the notion, frequently found in commentaries, that the perfect tense denotes PERMANENT or ETERNAL results. Such a statement is akin to saying the aorist tenses means “once-for-all.” Implications of this sort are to be drawn from considerations that are other than grammatical in nature. One must be careful not to read his or her theology into the syntax whenever it is convenient. ... the perfect may be viewed as combining the aspects of both the aorist and present tense. It speaks of completed action (aorist) with existing results (present). The basic question to be asked is which of these aspects is emphasized in a given context.

    Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, pages 573-574


    Jim
     
  14. ascund

    ascund
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    Hey 1jim

    You fail to grasp the force of the perfect tense given by God Himself in an Historic Document that speaks unendingly throughout all eternity.

    God’s Church will never end. Wallace can only document the use of various constructs from language OUTSIDE context. You do an excellent job referring to these scholarly works. However, our eternal God is able to communicate eternal truths far beyond the ability of normal conversations. Language has this ability for it was created to convey eternal truths. One must understand the perfect tense in context of God’s eternal Word – not the context of finite human exchanges.

    While you are technically correct, you functionally fail to grasp CONTEXT.
    Lloyd
     
  15. 1jim

    1jim
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    Hi ascund,


    ascund (previous message):

    ... the Greek Perfect in the following passages are bolded. These words carry the idea of a continued, completed, consummated, unending state. ... There is no counterpoint to the Greek Perfect Tense.


    ascund (recent message):

    1jim is wrong. Technically, he is right because his analysis comes from a study of language limited to conversations between finite individuals. He fails to grasp the force of the perfect tense given by God Himself in an Historic Document that speaks unendingly throughout all eternity. Context rules!


    Jim:

    You’re trying to have it both ways. On the one hand, you say that the perfect text itself denotes an unending state; on the other hand, you say that even though it is “technically” correct to say that the perfect tense itself does NOT denote an unending state, it still denotes an unending state ... based on the context.

    I agree that the context, not the grammar, is what determines whether a condition is eternal. So why don’t you just say that, and they’ll be no further debate on the matter. It is incorrect to say that the perfect tense itself denotes an unending state. As the examples I provided in my previous messages show, it most certainly does not.


    Jim
     
  16. Charles Meadows

    Charles Meadows
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    Lloyd,

    First, the Greek perfect affirms that our sanctification is an eternal process.

    This is a statement reflecting the views of many late 19th century grammarians - but it does not comport with current linguistic theories.

    Eternal security is outlined in the Bible - but we know it is true not because of the perfect tense but because of context. To base your case on the perfect tense form is eisegesis, pure and simple.
     
  17. ascund

    ascund
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    Your reference to the perfect passive ptcp is excellent. Your analysis of context suffers a bit. The phrase “once for all” does apply to Jesus’ offering. However, the definition of hagiazo has 3 definitions that depend on CONTEXT. It is God’s activity in setting believers aside onto Himself. It is a consecration. It is also a purification into the image of Jesus Christ. I disagree with your selection of “consecration” in this verse. To me it is God’s activity of setting believers aside unto Himself via Jesus. This is an eternal one-time event. The perfect tense conveys this idea rather nicely.

    This is reflected just a few verses later. “For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified. For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.”

    Here, we see the adverbial qualifier “for ever.”

    Context rules!
    Lloyd
     
  18. ascund

    ascund
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    Hey Charles

    Please note that I've never based OSAS strictly and solely on the Greek Perfect Tense. The GPT is but one of many correlating facets of God's eternal provision. It is a powerful verifying tool.

    Do not go to extremes in your statements.
    Lloyd
     
  19. Chemnitz

    Chemnitz
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    "1jim is wrong. Technically, he is right because his analysis comes from a study of language limited to conversations between finite individuals. He fails to grasp the force of the perfect tense given by God Himself in an Historic Document that speaks unendingly throughout all eternity."

    What an incredible copout!

    God chose to communicate his truth by means of human language. He chose to subject himself to the rules of grammar. You cannot ignore the rule of grammar in a vain attempt to prove a false doctrine. In doing so you are merely proving the precariousness of your argument Particularly as Bobryan pointed out there are verses that speak against OSAS.

    "The perfect tense is used for 'indicating not the past action as such but the present 'state of affairs' resulting from the past action" Wallace p. 573

    "In terms of aspect, the 'perfect tense' expresses a a focus upon result, the state which follows upon past activity. An action has ceased. NOw a resultant state of affairs or condition is in force." Voelz p. 168

    The perfect tense does not have any implication on future states only upon the present.
     
  20. ascund

    ascund
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    Hey Chemnitz

    Nice quotes from good sources!

    So what is the common sense understanding of this rare tense? The NOW state of affair continues! What is there to stop it? If nothing is given, then your correct technical quotes fail due to the misunderstanding of the force of God's Word.

    Technial linguistic comprehension of a tense is good as the first step. Although we do not build theology on any one aspect of linguistics, the GPT corroborates theology - especially OSAS.

    God promises us that we shall not perish (John 10:28-29).
    God has already glorified the believer (Rom 8:29-30).
    God will confirm every believer to the end (1 Cor 1:8).
    We stand in the power of God (1 Cor 2:5).
    God has established us in Christ (2 Cor 1:21-22).
    God has given the earnest of His Spirit (2 Cor 5:5-7).
    God has made us accepted (Eph 1:6).
    God has quickened us together with Christ (Eph 2:5-6).
    God began the good work in us and will continue to do it (Phil 1:6).
    God has made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance (Col 1:12-13).
    God has delivered us into the Kingdom of His dear Son (Col 1:12-13).
    God has delivered us from the power of darkness (Col 1:13).
    God has translated us into the kingdom of His dear Son (Col 1:13).
    The Lord is faithful, Who shall establish you (1 Thes 5:23-24 & 2 Thes 3:3).
    The Lord shall deliver me from every evil (2 Tim 4:18).
    The Lord will preserve me unto His heavenly kingdom (2 Tim 4:18).
    God reserves a place for us (1 Pet 1:4-5; Jude 1).
    God is able to keep us from falling (Jude 24).
    God will present us blameless before the presence of His glory (Jude 24).
    God has given us all things that pertain to life and godliness (2 Pet 1:3).
    God will not let our feet be move [from a position of justification], he does not slumber . . . He shall preserve you [the believer] from all evil: He shall preserve thy soul (Psalm 121:3,7).
    We shall not slide [from salvation] (Psalm 26:1).
    We can know that we are saved (1 John 5:13).
    God is faithful to deliver what He has promised (Heb 10:23).
    This list makes pretty easy common-sense reading.


    The GPT is all the more powerful when understood in CONTEXT. The GPT is even more powerful when understood in CONTEXT of biblical theology. CONTEXT and biblical theology go well beyond the limitations of text-book quotes.

    Lloyd
     

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