Some folks might be puzzled by these two terms, so here are some definitions: Higher Criticism...An effort to determine the actual authorship, date, place, & composition of a given text. Lower Criticism...an effort to identify & remove errors from a given text. These are only bried definitions, kept short to give you a picture of what each one entails. Like it or not, both are important; they often work hand-in-hand. Now, while these actions are usually applied to Scriptural mss, they're also applied to virtually every ancient writing also. Mosta the time, we drift into "Middle Criticism", a mixture of higher & lower!