Some primer thoughts before I get into the specifics of this thread: Would it be possible for God to actualize a world that would need atonement but for which God would not provide? It seems to me that this would be impossible for one or both of two reasons: 1) It is a illogical to consider that an Optimal Being do something that is unjust or unrighteous. 2) It is impossible for an Optimal Being to be unjust or unrighteous. ---A resolution for one's cognitive dissonance may be to change the meaning of 'just' or 'righteous', but we should not set such an example of poor reasoning. While listening to a message on Romans 3, the preacher read and then commented: Romans 3:25 God presented him as a sacrifice of atonement, through faith in his blood. He did this to demonstrate his justice, because in his forbearance he had left the sins committed beforehand unpunished— 26 he did it to demonstrate his justice at the present time, so as to be just and the one who justifies those who have faith in Jesus. NIV84 The preacher commented, "The reason Jesus had to die is because that debt had to be paid. It would be unjust for for God to allow that debt not to be paid. Justice had to be served. He sent Jesus to die for your sin because he is a just God and that debt had to be addressed..." The idea that Jesus made atonement for all of man's sin seems to be more congruent with why God would demonstrate His justice/righteousness per Rom3:26 above. How does the Calvinist understanding make sense of verse 26 regarding God making a sacrifice to demonstrate his justice? Would a calvinistic view agree that God demonstrated his justice/righteousness for anyone by atonement? It seems that the 'demonstration' of God's justice from a TULIP standpoint is simply the fact that He is God and you are not. Replying with statements like, "But who are you, O man, to talk back to God?", and "who are you to question God's plan for atonement", truncating the conversation with a QED meaning. In a different context, the non-cal would make claim to all of these statements. Three questions regarding Calvinist/TULIP teaching: 1) In what way does calvinistic teaching address how God demonstrates his justice and righteousness toward man? If it includes the act of atonement then why is that called 'justice' or 'righteousness'? 2) Is it the case that "He sent Jesus to die for your sin because he is a just God and that debt had to be addressed"? 3) Is it the case that "It would be unjust for for God to allow that debt not to be paid."?