The Sabbath was instituted by God in Genesis 2:2-3 BEFORE there was a jew on the face of the earth. It was "made for [the] man" and it was "made" by Christ as the Creator of man (Mark 2:27-28). It was "sanctified" by God or SEPARATED from the rest of the previous six days by God and it was "blessed" by God in contradistinction from the previous six days. Therefore, it was not "made" for man "just as the other six days were made" for man. No, it was "made" distinct from the other six days. The original Sabbath commemorated a SINLESS creation where God could say "very good" and this SINLESS creation was based upon CONTINUANCE IN GOOD WORKS by Adam and Eve. Grace and mercy have nothing to do with this first creation and when sin entered in, the whole creation was no longer "very good" but corrupted and defiled by sin and reserved for destruction by fire at the end of the SEVENTH millennium. The fourth commandment in Exodus calls upon Israel to "REMEMBER" the creational Sabbath while the fourth commandment in Deuteronomy calls upon Israel to "REMEMBER" redemption out of Exodus. The former calls to mind the SINLESS state of creation before the fall while the latter calls to mind the RESTORATION of creation to a sinless state by the blood of the passover Lamb of God. The former calls to mind SINLESSNESS by works and finds its application UNDER THE OLD COVENANT in the seventh day "of the week" while the latter finds it application UNDER THE NEW COVENANT in the "first day of the week. Both of these applications are vividly portrayed in Leviticus 23,25. The Creation Sabbath and the Fourth commandment do not contain the words "of the week". However, the application of the Sabbath law is consistent with the Seventh day "of the week" but yet cannot be restricted to the Seventh day "of the week" as God applies the Sabbath law to a variety of other days "of the week" as well as to other periods of time than the 24 hour day but to the seventh "month" and to the seventh "year" as well as to the first day, 50th year etc. Thus you cannot restrict the Sabbath law to the Seventh day "of the week" when God applies it far wider, although, it includes such an application. Under the Old Covenant the application of the fourth commandment finds its most prominent application to be the seventh day "of the week" as seen in Leviticus 23. However, also in Leviticus 23 is the foreshadowing of the NEW covenant and in connection with this NEW covenant types the most prominent application is always without exception the first day "of the week." Thus the Exodus applicatiton has reference to a SINLESS CREATION maintained by WORKS whereas the Deuteronomy application has reference to REDEMPTION in Christ by a NEW covenant that ushers in a NEW and SINLESS creation that commemorates GRACE without works. The Old Covenant application by the Jews not only points to a SINLESS CREATION in connection with WORKS but is inseparable from the Levitical regulations that demand that such a goal and set forth the WORKS necessary to obtain (sinless perfection) that goal in the life of the Jew (if he or any man could actually keep that law). The New Covenant application of the fourth command not only points to a SINLESS creation yet to come in connection with REDEMPTIVE GRACE but celebrates that grace in sanctifying that day in rejoicing and gladness (Psa. 118:24) and in private and public worship "in spirit and in truth" in doing the work of God (Isa. 58:13). It is a BETTER Sabbath observance for the people of God (Heb. 4:9) because it is based upon a GREATER work of God in Christ (redemptive work) that brings in a BETTER creation where again God can look upon all that he has created and say it is "very good." Hence, the relationship between the first Sabbath in Genesis and the Sabbath observance in Hebrews 4:9 is a SINLESS creation. That is the "rest" that the people of God must enter into in order to be free from the PRESENCE of sin. Faith in the gospel frees us from the "penalty" of sin (Heb. 4:2-3). Sanctification by the Spirit of God frees us at times from the "power" of sin but our salvation from sin will not be complete until we enter into that "rest" which is yet future -the rest of God from all sin - the rest found in the first creation but spoiled by sin but restored in the new creation. The New Covenant Sabbath application is the first day of the week, the "Lord's day" and is set apart and blessed by God to remember the redemptive work of Christ that provides great anticipation and expectation of a New Sinless creation. It is separated from the other six days of the week as "the Lord's day" and is observed by rejoicing and gladness (Psa. 118:24) as a day set apart for public worship of God's people and for doing the WORKS of God (Isa. 58:13). Hebrews 4:1-11 sets forth the theological ground work for the above interpretation of the Sabbath. All believers before Calvary entered into SPIRITUAL rest when they believed the gospel (Heb. 4:2) just as we do. Spiritual rest is the rest from the presence and power of sin in our spirit due to the new birth. The new birth obtains a sinless sanctified sanctuary within the elect for God to dwell - what is born of Spirit is spirit. However, our soul and body have not entered into a sinless state. The creational Sabbath commemorates a "rest" wherein God and all creation dwelt in a sinless state (Heb. 4:4-5). We have not entered into that kind of rest yet. Joshua did not lead Israel into that kind of rest but only led them into a type of that rest - Palestine. David did not obtain that rest for the people of God by merely subduing all enemies of God's people but only obtained a type of that rest. Jesus by his work of redemption (Heb. 4:10) provided the basis to obtain entrance into that kind of rest NOW in spirit and in the FUTURE for both spirit soul and body (Heb. 4:11). Just as God commemorated the first work of creation by a Sabbath observance so also Christ commemorated the second work of creation by a sabbath observance - "the Lord's day" the "first day of the week" the resurrection day and therefore there remaineth a Sabbath day observance for the people of God - a better Sabbath - a sabbath characteized by rejoicing and gladness, and hope, (Psa. 118:24). A Sabbath observance without Levitical Old Covenant regulations. A Sabbath observance characteized by public worship and doing the works of God.