I recently finished reading this book, authored in 1986. As far as I know, this is the last major book by Nida on his translation theory. As I have time I want to give a chapter by chapter review. First of all, in the Preface the authors tell us that this book is an update of the Nida methodology and theory based on "some important insights from sociosemiotics" (p. 7; this is often called social semiotics). Unfortunately they don't define this term for us at this point, and unbelievably it is not even listed in the index! I am no doubt greatly simplifying, but this is the view that the social context determines meaning. Semiotics is "the science that studies sign systems or structures, sign processes and sign functions" (Translation Studies, by secular scholar Susan Bassnett, p. 21). This is a natural continuation of Nida's dependence on existentialism and the code theory of communication. Another purpose of this book given in the Preface is that Nida tries to abandon the DE (dynamic equivalence) term and replace it with "functional equivalence" (a term used briefly in his previous book (1982) with Charles Taber, The Theory and Practice of Translation). The authors write, "Unfortunately, the expression 'dynamic equivalence' has often been misunderstood as referring to anything which might have special impact and appeal for receptors. Some Bible translators have seriously violated the principle of dynamic equivalence.... It is hoped, therefore, that the use of the expression 'functional equivalence' may serve to highlight the communicative functions of translating and to avoid misunderstanding" (pp. vii-viii).