Rom. 5:13 (For until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law. 14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come. Paul asserts that "by one man sin entered the world and death by sin, and so death passed upon all" (v. 12) and now is defending that assertion in verses 13-19. His first argument to prove that assertion is verse 13-14a. Let us look at it phrase by phrase: "(For until the law sin was in the world" He must be referring to the law given to God by Moses which revealed the death penalty for violating it. There is no other reason to limit the time to "Moses" if this is not the law Paul has in mind here. Moreover, God made it clear that the violation of the Mosaic law carried the death penalty and Paul is trying to prove "death by sin." "but sin is not imputed when there is no law." Paul claims that sin cannot be imputed when there is no KNOWN and REVEALED Law that death is the consequence for violation. However, the only law publicly given by God between Adam and Moses comparable to the law of Moses which clearly states that death is the consequence for its violation is Genesis 2:17. Nowhere can one find the law of conscience revealed in between Adam and Moses to men and nowhere is it revealed that violation of the law of conscience results in death. One can find the revelation of the particular law of murder results in death (Gen. 9) but nowhere can the law of conscience be found or where death is stated to be the consequence of its violation. However, it cannot be said of Noah that "by one man sin entered the world and death by sin" as sin and death had preexisted Noah. Neither can it be said of Moses that "by one man sin entered the world and death by sin" as sin and death preexisted Moses. It can only be said of Adam that "by one man sin entered the world and death by sin" and the only law possible for that violation is Genesis 2:17 which NONE BETWEEN ADAM AND MOSES could possibly violate as it was confined within and only possible within the Garden of Eden as nowhere else could the tree of knowledge and evil be found and yet death reigned between Adam and Moses. even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, Here is a special group of humans "even over them" who "had not sinned" in some sense but nevertheless died who also lived between Adam and Moses. The sense they had "not sinned" is "after the similitude of Adam's transgression." The word "similitude" means "likeness." They had not sinned LIKE Adam Sinned. What was the "likeness" of Adam's transgression? Paul says Adam was "not deceived" as was Eve. He sinned consciously, knowingly and willfully with his eyes wide open: 1 Tim. 2:14 And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression. There is no other explanation for the death of infants and mentally impaired between Adam and Moses except that "by one man sin entered the world and death by sin, and so death passed upon all" because all men existed and consisted in one human nature acting in unison as one man violating Genesis 2:17. Under the law of Moses infants were regarded as "unclean" and had to go through a rite of cleansing. However, that symbolic rite of cleansing inferred infants are born into this world with a sin nature and thus are to be regarded as "unclean." Again, verses 13-14 are presented to substantiate the assertion that "for by one man sin entered into the world and death by sin; so that death passed upon all men." The argument that condemnation (death by sin) comes upon men because of their own individual sins is repudiated throughout verses 15-19 by the repititious "by one man" many were "condemned" "made sinners" etc. This repititious "by one man" continues to prove the assertion that "by one man sin entered the world and death by sin." Death comes by sin and the death that came by the sin of "one man" is passed upon all is proved because no other reason for death, and particularly the death of infants between Adam and Moses can be accounted for but the violation of Genesus 2:17 by "one man" - Adam. Death cannot be passed apart from sin because "death by sin" and it is the sin of Adam that all humanity participated in - "for all have sinned". He does not say "all MIGHT sin" or "all who will sin" as the Arminian interpretation demands but the Aorist tense completed action "all have SINNED." Death passed upon all because all sinned when Adam sinned as by one man sin entered into the world and death by sin. By one man's disobedience "many were made sinners." By one man's disobedience many were condemned under sin to death because death by sin. This is why infants die because they were present and participated in the whole of human nature consisting and existing in "one man" and by one man sin entered the world and death by sin, and so death passed upon all, because all men have sinned.