I have studied the book of Romans for many years. It has become very plain to me that Paul, in chapters 2 through 11:12 is specifically addressing the Jewish segment of the mixed Jew-Gentile Roman church and has been explaing to them why Gentiles could come in to the church without entering into the covenant of the Law. That Paul is specifically addressing the Jews in this church is plainly evident: 2:17 - But if you bear the name "Jew" and rely upon the Law and boast in God 2:25 - For indeed circumcision is of value if you practice the Law; but if you are a transgressor of the Law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 3:9 - What then? Are we better than they? Not at all; for we have already charged that both Jews and Greeks are all under sin 4:1 - What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh, 7:1 - Or do you not know, brethren (for I am speaking to those who know the Law) There is more but that should be enough to illustrate. The letter, from 2 to 11:12, is plainly about showing the Jews why converted Jewish Christians are not under the Law because they have died with Christ and are raised up with him in the Spirit. See 6:14 or 7:1-6 for example. And notice that at 11:13, Paul turns his attention to the Gentiles of Rome. If we read this letter very carefully we can see clearly that this is what Paul means at Romans 8:29-30: For those (Jews) whom He foreknew (before the death and resurrection of Jesus), He also predestines to become conformed to the image of His Son (in his death and resurrection; see 8:5-17), so that He would be the firstborn among many brethren; and these (the Jews) whom He predestines, He also calls; and these (the Jews) whom He calls, He also justifies (see Rom 3:25;4:25); and these (the Jews) whom He justifies, He also glorifies (see 8:18-25). I am telling the truth in Christ, I am not lying, my conscience testifies with me in the Holy Spirit, that I have great sorrow and unceasing grief in my heart. For I could wish that I myself were accursed, separated from Christ for the sake of my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh, who are Israelites, to whom belongs the adoption as sons, and the glory and the covenants and the giving of the Law and the temple service and the promises, whose are the fathers, and from whom is the Christ according to the flesh, who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen. (Romans 9:1).