September - Reading 1

Discussion in 'Bible Reading Plan 2016' started by Clint Kritzer, Aug 31, 2002.

  1. Clint Kritzer

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  2. Clint Kritzer

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    Good evening –

    As we begin the month of September we also begin two new Books in our reading schedule. So much can be said about both Isaiah and Hebrews that I am making a separate entry introducing them for those of you who are interested.

    For the purposes of a year long schedule, we will be CHARGING through the 66 chapters of Isaiah. In reality, we could spend years studying this very important Book of Prophecy. Isaiah, whose name means “the Lord saves” was a very literate man. There are at least 25 words or word forms that are unique to this Writing. Evidence leans heavily to Isaiah being the sole author of this work.
    The son of Amoz, Isaih was a contemporary of Amos, Hosea, and Micah. His ministry began in 740 BC, the year that King Uzziah died. We know from 2Chronicles 26:22 that Isaiah also wrote a history of the reign of King Uzziah. These prophecies are spoken of often in the New Testament and at some future date I hope to add all of the cross-references to this forum.
    Chapters 1-39 were probably compiled during Isaiah’s ministry while 40-66 were probably written in his later years. We know that Isaiah lived until at least 681 BC. Much of the writings in this Book, however are written about the future, both his and ours.

    The Book of Isaiah was written at the point in history when the Assyrian Empire was was expanding and Israel (the Northern Kingdom) was declining. We can roughly mark the beginning of Isaiah’s ministry against the Book of 2Kings at chapter 15 when Azariah rose to power in Judah. In Isaiah 7:1 we will see that the prophet was very opposed to Ahaz’s affiliation with Tiglath-Pileser against the Northern Kingdom. However, this advise was disregarded by Ahaz and Israel was defeated. This left Judah quite vulnerable and by 701 BC Assyria threatened Jerusalem itself. King Hezekiah prayed earnestly about this matter and Isaiah predicted the withdraw of the Assyrians from the city.
    Even so, Isaiah warned that Judah would fall into captivity at the hands of the Babylonians. This would not come to pass until 586 BC but Isaiah also foresaw the restoration from exile at the rise of Cyrus the Persian.

    The theology of Isaiah harmonizes well with post-exilic writings of the Chronicles. The over all theme of the Book is that God judges and offers salvation. These Writings show us how God tramples rebellion yet rewards the rebellious upon repentance. These concepts reflect strongly in the Book and the notion of a highway for the exiles being brought back from captivity lead into strong Messianic prophecies. The deliverance of the Jews is emphasized and stands beside the concept of the Messiah being a light for the Gentiles and the Savior of nations. Isaiah blends the concepts of the saving of Israel and the salvation brought through the Christ to mankind.

    We will find in Isaiah great literary features of prose and poetry, songs and lamentations. Many of God’s creations will be personified such as the sun and moon being ashamed, the desert rejoicing, trees clapping their hands, Israel being the vine and the winepress judgment. Isaiah is at times sarcastic, at other times quite literal, and others, mournful. This was a brilliant man How fortunate we are that the Lord preserved his writing for us.

    We are uncertain as to actual author of Hebrews. We can safely assume that this Book was written before 70 AD in that the Temple is spoken of in present tense. The recipients were converted Jews who were attempting to Judaize Christianity, a constant theme in the Epistles. It is a distinct possibility that the recipients were the priest who became obedient to the faith in Acts 6:7.
    The overall theme of the Book builds upon the point of the introduction: that Christ is the full and absolute mediator of God’s Grace. Christ is presented as “better” than the Jewish system, which the Judaizers were intent upon falling back. The coming of the Messiah and His teaching supercede the Old Covenant and for those who converted there is no turning back. Believers are required to continue in their struggles to which they have commited themselves lest they be judged as the rebellious Israelites.

    [ August 24, 2004, 07:50 AM: Message edited by: Clint Kritzer ]
     
  3. Aaron

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    Isaiah has been called "The Fifth Gospel." It is so full of the "good news" of mercy and grace, and of a restoring of the glory Israel forfeited through their idolatry. And, of course, some of the most famous Messianic promises are contained therein.

    If you're reading from the links to Hebrews Clint provides, a striking feature you should notice is the multitude of quotes from the Old Testament. Christ is indeed the fulfillment of the Law and the Prophets.
     
  4. Clint Kritzer

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    Good morning -

    Thanks, as always, for your comments, Aaron.

    Chapter 1 of Isaiah is an introduction for the whole Book. Verse 1 is a title and verse 2 begins with a condemnation of the rebellious of Israel. This will be echoed in the final chapter in verse 66:24. he term "Holy One of Israel" occurs 26 times in this Book and only 6 times elsewhere in the Old Testament. This chapter represents Israel as in terrible moral decay, comparing the rulers of the nation to the rulers of Sodom and Gommorah. Verses 2:2-4 are almost identical to Micah 4:1-3. These verses recognize the time when both Jews and Gentiles will come to Jerusalem. The "Day of the LOrd" that echoes through today and tomorrows reading represent the Day of Judgement.

    It is interesting in Luke 20:39 that the Pharisees who were the teachers of the law sided with Christ in his debate with the Saducees. This was the major philosophical difference in these two sects. The Saducees did not believe in a resurrection nor, for that matter, any after-life at all. Paul will use this to his advantage as well in Acts 23:6-10.

    In Hebrews today, the autor of this Epistle goes right into the subject and establishes quickly his premise of the majesty and superiority of Christ. Christ is superior to the prophets and the angels. The Son is the very "radiance of God's Glory" and has received the inheritance.

    May God bless you

    - Clint
     
  5. Clint Kritzer

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    Proverbs 18:21

    Proper speech has been a recurring theme in many of our studies. In this verse we see that not only does our speech affect our neighbor but ourselves as well. The fruit one's tongue can be either good or bad, but either way, the person will eat of that fruit. This verse parallels quite closely Matthew 12:36-37. Our words are the indicators of what is in our hearts. It is not just our actions that matter in this life but also our verbal expressions that we will confess to God at Judgment.
     
  6. AF Guy N Paradise

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    I am caught up and 75% of the way done. Amen. Thanks again Clint. I think I will enjoy Isaiah. Our church recently had a college class on Job so I am really looking forward to that book. Thanks again and God Bless!
     
  7. Clint Kritzer

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    Good to see you, AFG! Hope all is well there in the Aloha State.

    I'm glad that you have stuck with the program. I think I can safely assume that by now you understand what a blessing it really is.

    This schedule blows through Isaiah at an incredibly fast pace and much of it will be somewhat obscure without the use of a good study Bible or other resource. Isaiah's ministry spans over 5 decades in the Southern Kingdom including the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah (2Kings 15-18; 2Chronicles 27-32). When we get to this point in 2006 I will, Lord willing, have a somewhat complete commentary written up on Isaiah.

    We begin Job in November and that reading will carry us to the end of the year. It stands out as one of my favotite Biblical accounts. That commentary will also be posted in 2006.

    Again, great to see you still with us!

    [ September 01, 2004, 06:32 PM: Message edited by: Clint Kritzer ]
     
  8. Clint Kritzer

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    Isaiah

    Isaiah – Introduction



    The Book of Isaiah has the prominent position of first in the Canon of the Books of Prophecy. Evidence shows that Isaiah has held this position in the Canon for many centuries and was it was well established by the time of Christ.

    One commentator has said of Isaiah, “If you hear him you grow confused because he upsets your notions, if you go with him you run into trouble because you are pushing against the crowd, if you deny him you feel guilty because you know he is right.”\

    Authorship

    There are basically three schools of thought on the authorship of Isaiah. It should be stated from the outset that any theory that sheds doubt on the author of a Biblical Passage is not shedding doubt on the authenticity of its being Divinely inspired. No credible Christian or Jewish scholar would ever suggest than any part of Isaiah does not belong in the Canon.

    Therefore, moving from the least popular to most popular theories on authorship, we will first summarize the Isianic authorship of all 66 chapters. This theory is supported by the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls which show the Book in its present form as early as 180 BC. Further, the New Testament writers never distinguish between authors when citing the writings of the prophet.

    The problem with the assumption of one author of Isaiah is that the Book seems to be segmented distinctly into a pre-exilic section in chapters 1-39 and a post-exilic section in chapters 40-66. Isaiah, the son of Amoz, states quite clearly in the first verse of the Book that he began his ministry in the days of Uziah (Azariah) and ended it in the days of Hezikiah. This would put him in the historical setting of 792 to 686 BC, a full century before the exile of Judah even occurred. Therefore, the majority of modern scholars have fallen into one of two groups: those who support a second Isaiah, and those who support a second and third Isaiah. Before anyone makes the assumption that such textual criticism is based upon “modern” theology, the distinctions in style and theology, as well as a lack of any mention of the prophet, in chapters 40-66 were first noted in 1167 AD by Rabbi Ubn Ezra.

    The second Isaiah who wrote at least chapters 40-55 would have been in Babylon early in the exile as the exile is not predicted but presupposed. These chapters look forward to the time of release under Cyrus. Some scholars contend that a third author added to the parchment to write chapters 56-66 which covers the early post-exilic era.

    The commentary for the next few weeks will not draw heavily upon any of these positions.

    The name “Isaiah” means “the Lord is salvation.” That there was a first Isaiah is strongly supported in both Biblical and apocryphal sources. His father, Amoz, should not be confused with the prophet Amos. Though both names are similar in English, they are quite different in Hebrew. There are other charaters in the Bible named Isaiah but the authors of the KJV changed the names of the other individuals to Jeshaiah to avoid confusion. Isaiah’s contemporaries were Amos and Hosea in the Northern Kingdom and Micah in Judah.

    Isaiah was married and his wife is referred to as “the prophetess.” It is possible that she too acted as an oracle or perhaps she held this title because of her marriage to Isaiah. He also had two sons with the symbolic names Shearjashub, which means “a remnant shall return,” and Maher-shalal-hash-baz which means “haste, speed, spoil to prey.”

    Historical Setting

    Isaiah’s ministry spanned four decades of major importance to the state of Israel and Judah. At the beginning of his ministry, the Assyrians were gaining power and beginning their conquests. Egypt was diminishing from its grand status of former years and, for the moment, Israel and Judah were enjoying relative security.

    This sense of security was what brought Isaiah the prophet to the forefront. His fellow Hebrews were functioning primarily under three false premises. First, they felt that God’s covenant with Israel was insoluble. Secondly, that Israel was honoring the covenant with mere sacrifices and ritual. Third, they felt that God would never allow Jerusalem to fall. Easy times seem to bring out the most corruption and Israel had fallen into an apostate state with the true nature of the law.

    Two decades into his ministry, Israel fell to the Assyrians and the volatile and fast changing political climate of the late 8th century BC began to bring about major changes in Palestine. It is in Isaiah that we first begin to see that even those who are rebellious towards God can still be used to accomplish His tasks. The Assyrians who were pagan were being used as an instrument of God’s justice, but they too would soon suffer His wrath. God was the author of history and as Isaiah’s ministry grows, that point becomes a central theme.

    Literary Style

    Isaiah is primarily poetry with a section of prose outlining historical data in chapters 36-39. There are hymns including the well known “servant songs.” Isaiah uses the most extensive vocabulary of any Old testament writer.

    Isaiah employs a great deal of personification. The sun and the moon are ashamed, the desert rejoices, the forest and mountains burst into song, the trees clap their hands. A favorite image is the vineyard representing Israel and the winepress is therefore a figure for judgment.

    Though Isaiah prophesies much about the coming collapse of Judah in the first 35 chapters, he also always looks forward to the reconciliation. The remnant is an important theme in his writings. The highway back is also prominently figured.
     
  9. Clint Kritzer

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    Isaiah 1
    (1:2-5; 11-20)


    Chapter 1 of Isaiah contains a collection of oracles from over a span of years in his ministry. It serves to give an overview of his teachings and gives an introduction to the Book. The different sections are connected primarily by keywords such as “sons” in verses 2 & 4, or “Sodom” and “Gomorrah” in verses 9 & 10. the overall theme that runs throughout this chapter is God’s controversy with His apostate people. The secondary theme on which we will concentrate today is the worthlessness of religion without morality.

    Isaiah 1:2-5 Favor Without Gratitude; Punishment Without Repentance

    Calling on the heavens and earth to give heed is a frequent literary device in the Old Testament known as the covenant lawsuit. In this literary form, the prophet acts as an officer in the Court of Heaven and serve to announce the breach of covenant by the people and that a judgment was soon to ensue. After announcing the sentence, the prophet would then expound upon the sins of the people, often lamenting.

    In this instance, the charge against Israel is that they have rebelled against God even though He had cared for them as sons. God then goes on to point out the ignorance of the people. Even the dumb animals know the hands that feed them. The ox and the ass both know who their master is but the people of Israel did not recognize God as the provider of their good fortune. They were neither as grateful as the ox nor as intelligent as the ass.

    In verse 4 Isaiah begins to speak. The fourfold address of the Israelites - nation, people, offspring, children – serves to illustrate the relationship God had with them and magnify the enormity of their sin. The first word of verse 4 can be interpreted as “woe” or “alas.” Isaiah is credited with coining the term “Holy One of Israel” as the phrase occurs nearly thirty times in his writings but only six times elsewhere in the Old testament.

    The result of Israel’s wickedness was that they had become estranged from God. The term is generally used in the Old Testament to designate strangers and foreigners. In rebelling, they had separated themselves from the covenant.

    Verse 5 has two possible interpretations. The first is “Why will you still be smitten?” The second is “Where, on what part of your body, will you still be smitten?” The latter translation sets an image of an individual so bruised and battered that there is no new spot that a wound can be inflicted. In either case the meaning is the same. Isaiah is simply bewildered that they continue to rebel in the face of such punishment.

    Isaiah 1:11-20 Religion Without Ethics

    In this particular Passage, Jerusalem is described as a city at political peace to which religious pilgrimages could be made. It is likely that Isaiah delivered this message at one of the religious holy days when people would be bringing sacrifices to the Temple.

    A man’s attitude to religion is best judged by what he considers essential to a right standing with God. The people of Judah were confident that they comprehended how to maintain His favor. They showed up, they offered sacrifices and recited prayers at the appropriate times. Their error was that they did not apply the principles of justice and righteousness to their daily lives.

    Isaiah attacked the dichotomy he saw in their practices. He set forth the proposition that their ritual was worse than useless. It was in fact an insult to God. He saw the Judeans at the Temple as pious frauds.

    He insults them by calling them “the rulers of Sodom” and the “people of Gomorrah.” These two cities even then were proverbial for their evil. In verse 11 the question is posed, “Of what use are your abundant sacrifices?” It appears as though the people were sacrificing beyond the requirements of the Law. They naturally assumed that this abundance would earn God’s gratitude. It must have been quite a shock to learn that God was actually offended by their sacrifices and wanted no more of them.

    Isaiah rejected the religion he saw in Jerusalem because it was divorced from righteous living and ethical living and therefore created a rift, not a bond, between God and the people. The people of Judah were unregenerate men attempting to manipulate God.

    Even prayer had lost its significance because of their sins. God refused to even look upon their hands that were covered with blood (plural) indicating that the people were murderers or on unjust war campaigns.

    The accusation is followed by exhortation. The people are told to wash themselves, cease doing evil and learn to do good. Learning to do goodness would be demonstrated in the caring for the weaker members of society. The men of Judah must learn to administer justice fairly. They were to care for the oppressed, the widows and the orphans. Just as we see in the New Testament teachings of Christ, the way to God was through the neighbor.

    In verse 18 God puts forth a call to decision. The sinner is encouraged to reason. The term reason is judicial in nature and infers that the sinner is to stand before God and listen as the case is summed up and the alternatives are offered. In this case the only alternative was repentance. If they repented, forgiveness and prosperity would be their reward. Should the men of Judah fail to repent, however, Isaiah warns them of certain calamity.
     
  10. Clint Kritzer

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    Hebrews

    Hebrews – Introduction



    It is an almost universal trait of commentaries on Hebrews that the commentator will begin by telling the reader what he does not know about the Book. We do not know who the author was. We do not know the exact dating. We are not sure who the original audience was. We really can’t even determine if the Book was originally intended as a Letter or a Sermon. Such a large degree of ambiguity leaves fairly wide margins for interpretation and intent.

    Despite this, the Book has always drawn a great deal of interest and respect from the earliest church fathers until the modern day. Clement of Rome quoted the Book when he wrote the Church in Corinth in 95 AD. When the now famous Dead sea scrolls were unearthed in Qumran in 1965, new material was found on the subject of the Old Testament priest, Melchizedek, which served to revitalize scholarly studies on the Book of Hebrews. There is still no unanimity among the scholars about the Book of Hebrews and so some of the finer points of the Book tend to get muddied with debate.

    But one thing any student of the Bible can agree upon is the central message of the Book. It is a warning against complacency. I remember as a child hearing a sermon given that stated in the Christian faith you either go forwards or backwards – there is no standing still. The Book of Hebrews is a push to go forward. Every Christian whether a babe in Christ or a well seasoned evangelist stands somewhere on his spiritual road between what he is and what he should be. That message is as relevant now as when whoever it was wrote or spoke it to whomever whenever they did.

    Author: As stated already, the authorship of the Book is completely lost in time. In the second century Pantaenus was the first to claim it as Paul’s work and that tradition endures for many today. However, any student of the New Testament will immediately recognize the lack of the familiar heading that begins thirteen other works by the apostle: the single name “Paul.” There is also a wide variation in style from Paul’s works. The “justification by faith” message so characteristic of Paul’s message is lacking. Also, the author of Hebrews is primarily concerned with the Priesthood of Christ, a concept not even mentioned in the known Pauline works. Paul’s concentration was upon the risen Christ, a facet mentioned only once in all of Hebrews (13:20). Even the issue of faith itself is treated differently in Hebrews. While Paul spoke of faith as a self-commitment to Christ risen, the author of Hebrews speaks of faith as the conviction of reality of the unseen world. Also telling is the lack of the “in Christ” phrase used so often by Paul.

    So if Paul did not write it, who did? There have been many guesses throughout the centuries. Erasmus though Clement of Rome wrote it, not just quoted it in his letter to Corinth. Luther speculated that it was Apollos, the learned preacher taken in by Aquilla and Priscilla. Other candidates are Barnabas, Luke, and even Priscilla, thus explaining the lack of the authors heading at the beginning of the Book. Each theory has its strong and weak points, far too numerous to go into in this lesson.

    What we do know about the author was that he was strongly versed in the Old Testament. He was a Hellenistic Jew possessing a great mastery of the Greek language. The language is so carefully constructed that the unknown author is sometimes referred to as the “Isaiah of the New Testament.” We know that the author felt displaced. He was a pilgrim on this earth always looking forward to the return to his real home in glory. Many nautical terms are used in the writing as well indicating that he was quite familiar with the shipping or fishing industry.

    Date: Once again we are left with pure speculation as to the time of the writing of the Book. We can, however, set some brackets to narrow down the time period. It could not have been written later than 95 AD as that is when Clement of Rome quoted it. If one holds to the tradition of Pauline authorship the latest date would be 64 AD when he was martyred. Timothy is mentioned in the Book placing it during his lifetime after his conversion. The author speaks of the priests making daily sacrifices and makes no mention of the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD, an event that the author surely would have spoken of to reaffirm his position of the Heavenly sanctuary in contrast to the earthly.

    The author speaks of persecution happening within the Christian community. The problem is, it is impossible to determine which time of persecution. A good guess is the Neronian torture and crucifixion in 64 AD when Christians were blamed for the fire that ravaged Rome. However, the myriad of Old Testament references and symbols would have likely been lost on the Hellenistic Jews of Rome. The language points more towards a Palestinian audience. Also in 12:4 the author states “You have not yet resisted to the point of shedding your blood.” History teaches us that much blood ran during Nero’s onslaught against the followers of Christ.

    The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls’ mention of Melchizedek has offered another theory that the Book was originally written, or preached, to recent converts of the Essene community in 68 AD when Rome destroyed their homes. This theory is further supported by the message of maturing in faith and not holding to rites by rote. Though purely speculative, a dating of between 68 when the Essene community was destroyed and 70 when Jerusalem was sacked seems a logical guess to the date of the composition.

    Purpose: The only indication of any destination for the Book of Hebrews comes in 13:24 with the ambiguous phrase “Those who come from Italy send you greetings.” This cryptic phrase can be interpreted in various ways and raises more questions than answers.

    Nonetheless, the recipients of Hebrews were a group of already converted Christians who had begun to become too complacent in their religion. This, coupled with the secularism of the world and the diversity of religions in the Roman Empire, threatened the faith of those who had confessed themselves to Christ. Those who held to the Way were content with milk instead of meat and so the author cries out to them in 6:1-2, “Therefore let us leave the elementary doctrine of Christ and go on to maturity, not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God, and of instruction about washings, the laying on of hands, the resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment.”

    For the author of Hebrews, true worship was not defined by rites and formalism. True worship was a drawing near to God. From the very first verses in the Book, the author is amazed that these people who had been involved in the faith so long that they should be teachers no longer recognized the greatness of Christ or what he had done for them. Their familiarity must be replaced with excitement. They had grown up as Jews hearing the promises of the Old Testament and now that the fulfillment had occurred, they had no zeal. Therefore the author pushes them to remember – remember your past, remember your leaders who have died, and above all remember what Christ has done for you.

    In Hebrews, the church is set in the context of the exodus. The author does not concentrate on the Temple, he concentrates on the Tabernacle. It was the time when the Hebrew people were on their way to a land of promise. When the people wanted to stop and settle at an oasis, the leaders pushed them on. They showed endurance and fortitude. They were not an institution, they were the people of God. We have not arrived at perfection but with Jesus at the helm, we’re getting there!
     
  11. Clint Kritzer

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    Hebrews 1:1-4 Introduction

    The book begins with a stately Christology. There are two major points the author makes in this introduction: (1) God has spoken; (2) God has spoken for the last time.

    It should be noted that for the author there is no question as to God’s existence or to the fact that He has spoken. He does not even set out to prove either but states these two points emphatically. God spoke to us in visions and in nature. He spoke to us in harvests and plagues. God spoke to us partially in the prophets. Each prophet had his own message to deliver pertinent to their time. Through Amos, God spoke of Justice. Through Isaiah, He spoke of holiness. Through Hosea, He spoke of forgiveness. Each of these prophets taught us a facet of God’s character. Each gave us a particular message.

    But the end of the age of prophets has come now, says the author. Now God has spoken the full, round truth and He did so in the form of His Son. That Son is unique among beings and the author lists four characteristics and three achievements that set Him apart as unique. The characteristics are: (1)The Son is appointed heir of all things. This appointment occurred before time and was a necessary element to the great plan of redemption. (2) It was through the Son that God created the world. The Gospel of John calls Christ the “Word” to convey this concept. He is not only the heir of all things but also the maker. (3) He reflects the glory of God. He is the exact image of God. He is like the wax that has been pressed with a stamp making a perfect representation. (4) He is upholding the universe by His word of power. He is the agent of God in whom all things are held together.

    The achievements of the Son are: (1) He made purifications for sin. Through His life death and resurrection He made possible the reconciliation of man with God. (2) He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high. He occupies a place of unparalleled power. (3) Having become as much superior to the angels as the name He has obtained is more excellent than theirs. His name is “Son.” Their name is “messenger.” He has always been. They were created. Jesus is far above the angelic emissaries. The author devotes the remainder of chapter 1 to establishing this superiority over angels in order that by the end of chapter 2 who can return to his original image of Christ standing at the end of the line of prophets.

    Hebrews 1:5-14 Superior in His Nature

    Christ’s superiority is stressed in five arguments relying upon various Old Testament Passages. First, Christ is declared a “Son.” No angel was ever given that title. The Passages quoted are Psalm 2:7 and 2Samuel 7:14. In the latter, David had wished to build the Temple but was not allowed because of his bloody past. Instead it would be his son who would accomplish this. In Peter’s sermon at Pentecost, Christ is proclaimed the fulfillment of that prophecy.

    The second argument for superiority is that the angels are commanded to worship the Son. The quotation is Deuteronomy 32:43 and Psalm 97:7. These verses call for the worship of God alone. The author interprets all Old Testament Passages relating to God as prophetic of the Son’s preexistence.

    The third argument is that angels are servants but Jesus is sovereign in the universe. The quotes are from Psalm 104:4 where the angels are sent as winds, Exodus 3:2 where they are flames of fire before the throne and Psalm 45:6 where in the author’s interpretation, Christ is outright called “God.” Though rare in the New Testament, it shows the early recognition of Christ’s divinity and recognition of the Trinity.

    Verses 10-12 make the fourth argument and quote Psalm 102:25-27 and speak of Christ as Creator of all – including the angels. All of creation will someday come to pass but Christ as God remains permanent.

    The final argument in verse 14 states that angels are servants while Christ is Mediator. The angels were continually sent forth in the Old Testament to help men receive God’s salvation. However, they could never effect it. The angels were messengers of salvation. Jesus was the instrument.
     
  12. Clint Kritzer

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