Study of the book of Jonah

Discussion in 'Baptist Theology & Bible Study' started by evangelist6589, Aug 2, 2014.

  1. evangelist6589

    evangelist6589
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    Here is my first draft but I will probably work on more tonight. So much more can be said but I doubt in one teaching I will even be able to get through this summary. I used 3 Study Bibles, a OT Survey book, and 2 commentaries. However the commentaries were quite deep and more meant for a pastor preaching verse by verse and not just someone doing a survey on a book.

    If you see any spelling errors, grammar errors, or obvious issues please let me know. Thanks...

    My formatting vanished when copy and pasting from Word 2011 Mac to this forum.

    The Book of Jonah

    Author- In Hebrew Jonah means dove and he is the author despite the textual critics that claim he was not. For more on this check out the book A Survey of OT Introduction by Gleason Archer. Jonah was one of four OT Prophets that Christ made a reference to (Mt 12:41, Lk 11:32). The others were Elijah, Elisha, and Isaiah.

    Date- The date of the book is not known for certain but some scholars place the book may have been written after the destruction of Nineveh in 612BC. But we know from history that Jonah preached during the reign of Jeroboam II (782-753BC).

    Historical Background of Nineveh- Nineveh was located on the east bank of the Tigris River about 550 miles from Samaria. An outer wall and an inner wall protected Nineveh and the city was some 30 miles. Prior to Jonah’s arrival two plagues had erupted there and a total eclipse of the sun occurred on June 15, 763. Nineveh was the capital of the Assyrian empire

    Theological Themes (Source Crossway ESV SB)

    MAJOR- God’s love for all the nations
    1. God’s sovereign rule over events on earth
    2. God’s Determination to get his message to the nations
    3. The need for repentance from sin
    4. The need for repentance from self-centeredness and hypocrisy
    5. The full assurance that God will relent when people repent

    Questions- Can you name the various miracles in the book of Jonah? Open for discussion.

    Overview of the book

    Book filled with miracles- Storm, the lot, the calmness of the sea after Jonah was thrown overboard, the great fish appearing at the right time, the preservation of Jonah in the fish, safe and sound on shore and able to go to Nineveh without permanent damage, the plant, the worm, the east wind, and the repentance of the entire city.

    Jonah a Type of Israel- Mt 12:40. Typology is the Biblical comparisons made between persons, events, things, and institutions of the Biblical Period.

    Chapter 1

    Jonah gets a call from God to preach to Nineveh because Nineveh is a very wicked city with great evil (ESV). Jonah decides to run away from the Lord and disobey him because as he says in 4:2. Jonah only wanted the goodness of God to be shown to Israel and he did not like Gentiles. So in other words Jonah hated an enemy of Israel.

    Q- Do such biases and hate flow in the church today? Perhaps you can’t afford to be a missionary, but do you hate and or are you indifferent towards the homeless person begging for food at your feet? If God called you to be a local evangelist would you do it, or would you disobey him?

    Jonah disobeys God and God punishes him, and in his disobedience the lives of unbelievers are threated. But Jonah is cast into the sea and even the unbelievers become God fearers that day. NOTE- The Phoenician Mariners were most likely Pagans and they were pantheistic & pluralistic, and much easier to dialogue with than contemporary Humanists, Hedonists, relativists & Post Modernists whom do not believe in anything, and are closed to dialogue and stretching their mind. Jonah was cast into the sea and is swallowed by a great fish.

    Chapter 2

    Much speculation comes from what the fish/whale was that swallowed Jonah. Some argue a Whale Shark, others a Sperm Whale, and some biologists a Great White Shark or an ancestor of the beast, which seems more likely given the beast, is a fish and not a mammal. Also there is much speculation on whether or not Jonah actually died while in the beast. However looking at Mt 12:40 it is clear he was not dead. When Jonah was in the fish Jonah prays a psalm of thanksgiving for deliverance. Jonah knew his scripture and so should we. Jonah is repentant and the Lord commands the fish to spit him out onto dry land.

    Chapters 3-4

    Jonah obeys God and goes to Nineveh to preach REPENTENCE and the people respond to the message. Note- Various textual critics and liberal scholars doubt the authenticity of the book due to the quick repentance and simple message, but as God is the author of salvation (2:9) He can turn peoples hearts to Him and grant them faith and repentance. In response to this God relented from his judgment on Nineveh. Jonah becomes angry because God did not destroy those whom he hates and the Lord explains to Jonah that he has much compassion on the city primarily because of the 120,000 children, and also the men & women and the animals.
     
    #1 evangelist6589, Aug 2, 2014
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  2. thisnumbersdisconnected

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    How long -- number of weeks -- is this study to be?
     
  3. Winman

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    OK, overall you have done a good job here, but I would disagree in a few areas.

    The east wind is not a miracle in the Middle East but quite normal. It is not unusual for temperatures above 110 degrees F in this area of the world.

    The people's repentance is not a miracle. God does not magically make you repent. Jonah preached the word of God and the word of God convicted them, but the people had to choose of themselves to repent. Why even preach if God can simply ZAP people to behave differently?

    Jonah is not a type of Israel, but Jesus Christ. Jonah spent three days and nights in the belly of the whale as Jesus spent three days and nights in the heart of the earth.

    We are directly told this "fish" was a whale. The word "mammal" did not even exist until around 1758 when Carl Linnaeus developed a new system to classify animals. Until this time, all sea-life were considered "fish" including whales and porpoises.

    And note that God implied he SHOULD spare Nineveh because of these 120,000 little children who could not discern between their right hand and left hand, and also much cattle.

    Jon 4:11 And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand; and also much cattle?

    Why SHOULD God spare Nineveh? Because these little children were innocent and not sinners. They had no knowledge between good and evil (Deu 1:39, Isa 7:16). They were no more guilty of sin than were the many cattle there who cannot commit sin.

    Overall, you did a real good job, but there are a few little mistakes here and there.
     
    #3 Winman, Aug 2, 2014
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  4. Deacon

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    Good job!

    Comment/suggestion: Just a word change

    Perhaps you might change it to "Jonah disobeys God and God disciplines." Refer to Deuteronomy 8:5; Proverbs 3:11, 12; Hebrews 12:5–7

    God punishes those who oppose him Refer to Naham 1
    God disciplines those he loves like a father yet ultimately punishes those who disobey him.
    Repentance breaks the disobedience/punishment cycle.

    The Miracle of Salvation (Jonah 1–2)
    Observation 1: The Prophet Runs
    Observation 2: The LORD Pursues
    Observation 3: The Prophet is a fool
    Observation 4: The Sailors Awe
    Observation 5: A Fish with Purpose
    Observation 7: The Prophet Prays (thanksgiving while in the belly of the sea creature)
    Observation 8: The God of Grace

    Rob
     
  5. evangelist6589

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    One session so it needs to be brief. OT Survey books are probably better for such a brief time. However I only have one and there are a number of them.
     
  6. evangelist6589

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    Thanks Rob! I will make some corrections before my document hits the printer. Thanks.
     
  7. thisnumbersdisconnected

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    There's far too much in Jonah to leave to one session. But you're missing one of the biggest.

    Take a quick glance at the provided intel on Nineveh. Where are you? The city still exists, but now its called Mosul, Iraq. Key words: Islam, Sunni, radical jihadism. Think terror, bloodshed and violence, one of the most dangerous places on the face of the earth. It was the same then.

    Nineveh captured most of the Mideast in Jonah's day. They did things like thread rope through the rib cages of their captives -- literally knitting them together by running a large spear with the rope tied to it through about a six-inch gathering of flesh on one side of the abdomen. They tortured their captives -- foreign captured kings, lawbreakers, etc. -- for days, finally running a pike up through their buttocks into the thorax and stopping just short of the brain. They didn't want them to die too soon. Then they'd leave them there in the public square for days. Finally, they'd leave just the head on the pike, removing the rest of the body but preserving the skins, which then adorned the walls of public buildings.

    Now imagine God sends you to such a place to tell the people what terrible things would befall them if they don’t change their way and turn to the living God. How many people would actually go there? Like Jonah, most of us would choose a Mediterranean cruise to the Spanish Riviera. Fear would be a natural response. Was Jonah full of fear? Who were the Assyrians to him? The Assyrians were enemies of the Israelites but you must note, it isn't so much fear as anger that motivates Jonah. It is apparent from the original Hebrew that it wasn't because of fear he didn’t want to go to Nineveh. He didn’t want to go to Nineveh because he didn't want the enemies of Israel to hear how to avoid God’s judgment, He simply did not care about them.

    Now consider the consequences of his rebellion. Trying to sleep away the voyage while the ship endures a violent Mediterranean storm -- and the sleep is a strong suggestion of depression and withdrawal in anticipation of the Lord's anger -- nearly drowning when that anger is expressed, saved most likely just before he drew his last breath by being swallowed by a fish, and sitting in that animal's belly for three days and three nights. Now, imagine what the stomach acids and digestive juices would do to him. There are essays by Christians who are also scientists detailing a withering of the flesh and a bleaching of the hair and skin. When that fish spit him up on the beach at Joppa, he would have looked ... interesting.

    Now do you think such a sight would catch people's attention as he made his way to Nineveh? It was a long walk from where he became fish vomit. Lots of people would have seen him, many on camel- or horseback who would have arrived in Nineveh before him. He would have told his story about how he got his ungodly appearance, and why he was going to Nineveh. In short, the Assyrians probably knew he was coming, but even then, they wouldn't have been ready for his apppearance.

    Eventually he still delivered his message, “Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown.” A short, simple message that doesn't seem designed to do much, and some people have made a great deal about that. It was, they claim, the minimum message he would give, still rebelling and hoping his mission failed. But he was in Nineveh for three days. He would have had people come up to him, engage him in conversation or debate, he would have had the chance -- one could say, was forced -- to present the Gospel as it was then known. Despite Jonah's wishes to the contrary, the Ninevites repented and lived. Sure enough it didn’t make Jonah happy, he got frustrated, even depressed about it. He went outside the city, sat on a hill and sulked, watching to see what would happen. Nothing happened. God was true to His word. He relented, because Nineveh repented!

    I think Jonah’s attitude had to do with the belief that God’s enemies deserve judgment. In 2011 Jonah might say "Homicide bombers should be bombed, not saved." What do you say in 2011 if God sends you to the Muslims in Iraq? What does God say about the whole matter? God desires all people to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth (1 Timothy 2:4). And about the Ninevites in particular, God said "Should I not have compassion on Nineveh, the great city in which there are more than 120,000 persons who do not know the difference between their right and left hand, as well as many animals?" Jonah 4:11)

    Does that not teach that God loves all men, regardless of their state of mind or heart?

    What about Jonah 3:1? "And the word of the Lord came to Jonah a second time ... " Are you going to go into the implications of that statement? How about the lesson of what it means to repent in chapter three, vv. 5-10?

    There is so much more here than a history lesson. Don't get hung up on formal theology. Read, study, listen with your heart to what the message really is.
     
    #7 thisnumbersdisconnected, Aug 2, 2014
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  8. evangelist6589

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    I would agree. The commentary by Feinberg has much in it to cover in one setting. Regarding the information you have posted below what commentary did you get that from?


     
  9. kyredneck

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    Lol, you shouldn't ask that, dCON would love for you to think it all originated with him!
     
    #9 kyredneck, Aug 2, 2014
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  10. preacher4truth

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    Yup! :laugh: :wavey:

    Some of it came from here.

    I simply googled this phrase that tnd used (and gave no credit to another for) :
    Now imagine God sends you to such a place to tell the people who terrible things would befall them if they don’t change their way and it led me to the source he plagiarized.
     
  11. kyredneck

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    Man, he's like the Ever Ready Bunny, he's been caught plagiarizing so many times, then he acts all apologetic like it was an oversight on his part, and then just keeps on keepin' on doing the same thing again and again. I guess he's ate up with a desire for people to think he knows everything about everything, or sumthin like that.
     
    #11 kyredneck, Aug 2, 2014
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  12. preacher4truth

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    And note a little re-wording by tnd from above source to make it, uh, 'his'. :thumbs:

    tnd says: 'I think Jonah’s attitude had to do with the belief that God’s enemies deserve judgment.'

    The source he stole this from says this:

    'I think Jonah's attitude had to do with racism & prejudice, that God's enemies deserve judgment. In 2011 Jonah might say “Homicide bombers should be bombed...'

    Note how he simply left off a few words 'with racism & prejudice'. Just enough subtle changes to make it look as if it was from him, and to perhaps prevent being found out.

    Some will go to no end to make themselves look credible, intellectual, RIGHT. It's unbelieveable, callow, and cowardice.
     
    #12 preacher4truth, Aug 2, 2014
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  13. kyredneck

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    He ALWAYS 'rewords', that's why it's pure outright plagiarism on his part and not a mere oversight to cite his source as he claims. Think PHONY.
     
  14. preacher4truth

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    Exactly. 100% phony and 100% insecure. I was raised to understand such behavior is called fibbing.

    Gotta love his 'follow your heart' plug at the end of his plagiarized response which shows following your heart to be NOT the thing to follow, as it led him to steal from another, re-word it, and act like it was his. lol...
     
  15. kyredneck

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    I no longer read his posts, unless they're very brief, because I'm convinced it's just a charade with him; and he calls the POTUS 'the great pretender', ROFL, oh the irony.
     
  16. thisnumbersdisconnected

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    It's actually from an outline of a study on Jonah we just completed. It's a compilation of a copule commentaries and study guides our church put together -- all the adult Sunday School classes study the same lesson each week -- with additional studies done by our SS teacher, and a couple notes I made on the side afte class last month. I can provide you the details if you want, if you PM me.
     
  17. preacher4truth

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    Nonsense and I give you no benefit of doubt given your plagiarizing track record. :thumbsup:
     
  18. preacher4truth

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    Thieves are to be avoided according to the Holy Spirit via Paul, 1 Cor 5:9ff. He's done this several times and it appears to be a chronic behavior pattern so you're correct in no longer reading his posts. :thumbsup:
     
  19. DHK

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    That is not all who should be avoided. The Bible teaches we should avoid contentious people. This thread was going along quite well until you and kyr came along and started attacking the person instead of contributing to the content of the thread.
     
  20. preacher4truth

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    You're probably the most contentious person I've met, online or otherwise. TND plagiarized. Fact. He was called on it. Some of us see contributing as not taking anothers work and making it their own which tnd has done several times. Calling a person on this is not an attack, in fact YOUR post is what is an attack. :wavey:
     

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