According to the Arminian and Calvinist understanding of Ephesians 1:4 everyone that has been saved and everyone that will be saved was chosen as foreseen individuals before creation. My view is that God chose His Redeemer before creation and as a consequence chose corporately as a target group all those the Redeemer would redeem. Either view is completely consistent with Ephesians 1:4 with the two views differing on what it means to be chosen "in Him." My view is modeled on Karl Barth's view that Christ was chosen and as a result those who Christ would redeem were chosen in Him. The way to resolve the issue of two views appearing to be a viable understandings of the text is to look at other verses and passages that impinge on the same issue to see if one view appears more consistent with the balance of scripture. When I say the verse is consistent with my view, the verse either does not say anything about being chosen before the person lived as a sinner, or does not imply election prior to the physical lifetime of the person. In Matthew 22:14, at the end of the parable of the Marriage Feast, where the King looked over those called to the dinner, and chose to reject someone not wearing appropriate clothing, the text reads “For many are called but few are chosen.” I think the idea is that some who came were unwilling to trust in Christ, to so to speak, put on His protective propitiation. But no matter what, clearly those chosen were called, teaching election occurs during our lifetime. In Matthew 24:22, we see that the Elect existed at the time they were referred to as the Elect, which is consistent with being chosen individually during their lifetime. In Matthew 24:24, we see again that the Elect are folks living at the end times and it is not clear whether they could be deceived, but if they could the signs and wonders of the false teachers would deceived them. So this text again is consistent with being chosen individually during their lifetime. In Matthew 24:31, we see the Elect gathered at the end of the age, again consistent with being chosen individually during their lifetime. In Mark, the references are the same as in Matthew. In Luke 18:7, the Elect cry out to God, indicating they are those who believe in God, again consistent with being chosen individually during their lifetime. In Luke 23:35, we see Christ referred to as God’s Chosen One. In Romans 8:33 we see that no one can lay a charge against God’s Elect, again consistent with being chosen during our lifetime unto salvation. On the other hand, this verse precludes the elect being charged has having a nature of children of wrath, and requires election after we are conceived with a nature of children of wrath for we were just as the rest of mankind, Ephesians 2:1-3. In Romans 16:13, we see that an existent person, Rufus is referred to as a choice man in the Lord, again consistent with being chosen and placed in the Lord. In 1 Corinthians 1:26-28, we see that God chose us out of this world, clearly teaching we were chosen individually after creation, during our lifetime. Also those chosen, not many wise, not many mighty, not many well born, were chosen to shame those who value worldly treasures, folks that think others are ignorant, folks that think they are powerful, folks that think their birth circumstances places them above others. In Ephesians 1:3-4, we see that God has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly in Christ, just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world that we would be holy and blameless before Him. The idea is that we have been the beneficiary of God’s blessings from before the foundation of the world, when God chose Christ to be His Redeemer, and as a consequence we were chosen conceptually as the target group of believers who would be redeemed, then during our lifetime when we were placed in Christ we are covered with the grace granted those in Christ from all eternity, and so, at judgment we will be holy and blameless before Him because we are in Christ. In Colossians 3:12, we see advice given to folks who are alive and referred to as chosen of God, again consistent with being chosen during our lifetime. In 2 Thessalonians 2:13 we see God chose us for salvation by means of sanctification – being set apart for God, and faith in the truth. This is consistent with being chosen individually during our lifetime, after we put our trust in Christ. In 1 Timothy 5:21, we see angels referred to elect Angels because they are associated with Jesus. This establishes a possible pattern, entities associated with God’s Chosen One can be referred to as Elect as the consequence of the affiliation, such as being “in Christ.” In 2 Timothy 1:9, Paul tells us that when we are “in Christ” we share in the purpose and grace granted those “in Christ” from all eternity. In 2 Timothy 2:10, we have a very powerful verse in support of being chosen during our physical lifetime. Paul says, “For this reason [God’s work is not imprisoned] I endure all things for the sake of those who are chosen, so that they may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus and with it eternal life.” Paul is saying his work is for the sake of those who are chosen, or in other works for the sake of those God will choose. If they were already chosen, Paul’s work would not influence their salvation, it would be a done deal. In Titus 1:1, we see Paul indicated his work as an apostle of Jesus Christ is for the faith of those chosen of God, again allowing the idea that his work is preparatory to being chosen. In James 2:5, James teaches the same thing Paul teaches, that God chooses folks of faith, folks who do not value worldly treasures, who are the poor of this world, but rich in faith, folks who see their treasure in heaven, folks who are heirs to the kingdom which God promised to those who love him. In 1 Peter 1:2, we again have a very important verse in support of being chosen during our lifetime. Folks alive at the time, are chosen according to God’s foreknowledge, or in other words according to God’s planned method of selection, by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, the Holy Spirit sets us apart when He spiritually baptizes us into Christ, to obey Jesus – once in Christ we have the power to obey Jesus, not perfectly but faithfully – and be sprinkled with His blood – we are justified in Christ – may grace and peace be yours in the fullest measure – referring to process sanctification in Christ. This verse tells us how we are chosen and it applies to those living and in need of justification. In 1 Peter 2:4, we see that when we are saved, newborns in Christ, we come to Christ, rejected by men but choice and precious in the sight of God. This is consistent with being altered by our conversion in Christ, such that in Christ no charge can be brought against us. In 1 Peter 2:6, we see that Christ was precious and choice when chosen. Amen. In 1 Peter 2:9-10, we see another power passage in support of being chosen during our lifetime. Verse 9 says that we are a chosen race, a people for God’s own possession, so we may proclaim the excellencies of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light, (verse 10) “for you once were not were not a people but now you are the people of God, you had not received mercy but now you have received mercy. This says that we were alive and not part of God’s chosen people, and then we received mercy and became part of God’s chosen people. In 2 John 1:1, 13, we see John refer to existent ladies as Elect, again consistent with being chosen during our lifetime. In Revelation 17:14, we see a nice summary verse of my Soteriology, those that are with the Lord are those who are the called and chosen and faithful. When we hear the gospel, we hear the call, when we receive or affirmatively respond to the gospel with all our heart, we are the called, and then when God accepts our faith as sufficient for His purpose and spiritually baptizes us into Christ we are the chosen, and during our spiritual baptism God converts us and protects our faith and gives us the Holy Spirit to help us walk humbly with our Lord, and therefore we are faithful.