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New Heaven and New Earth-now or later?

Discussion in 'Baptist Theology & Bible Study' started by Iconoclast, Jan 24, 2021.

  1. Iconoclast

    Iconoclast Well-Known Member
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    John Owen sermon;John Owen: Sermons of John Owen - Christian Classics Ethereal Library

    1. It is certain, that what the apostle intends by the “world,” with its heavens and earth, verses 5, 6, which was destroyed by water; the same, or somewhat of that kind, he intends by “the heavens and the earth” that were to be consumed and destroyed by fire, verse 7. Otherwise there would be no coherence in the apostle’s discourse, nor any kind of argument, but a mere fallacy of words.

    2. It is certain, that by the flood, the world, or the fabric of heaven and earth, was not destroyed, but only the inhabitants of the world; and therefore the destruction intimated to succeed by fire, is not of the substance of the heavens and the earth, which shall not be consumed until the last day, but of persons or men living in the world.

    3. Then we must consider in what sense men living in the world are said to be the “world,” and the “heavens and earth” of it. I shall 134only insist on one instance to this purpose, among many that may be produced, Isa. li. 15, 16. The time when the work here mentioned, of planting the heavens, and laying the foundation of the earth, was performed by God, was when he “divided the sea,” verse 15, and gave the law, verse 16, and said to Zion, “Thou art my people;” — that is, when he took the children of Israel out of Egypt, and formed them in the wilderness into a church and state. Then he planted the heavens, and laid the foundation of the earth, — made the new world; that is, brought forth order, and government, and beauty, from the confusion wherein before they were. This is the planting of the heavens, and laying the foundation of the earth in the world. And hence it is, that when mention is made of the destruction of a state and government, it is in that language that seems to set forth the end of the world. So Isa. xxxiv. 4; which is yet but the destruction of the state of Edom. The like also is affirmed of the Roman empire, Rev. vi. 14; which the Jews constantly affirm to be intended by Edom in the prophets. And in our Saviour Christ’s prediction of the destruction of Jerusalem, Matt. xxiv., he sets it out by expressions of the same importance. It is evident, then, that, in the prophetical idiom and manner of speech, by “heavens” and “earth,” the civil and religious state and combination of men in the world, and the men of them, are often understood. So were the heavens and earth that world which then was destroyed by the flood.

    4. On this foundation I affirm, that the heavens and earth here intended in this prophecy of Peter, the coming of the Lord, the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men, mentioned in the destruction of that heaven and earth, do all of them relate, not to the last and final judgment of the world, but to that utter desolation and destruction that was to be made of the Judaical church and state; for which I shall offer these two reasons, of many that might be insisted on from the text:—

    (1.) Because whatever is here mentioned was to have its peculiar influence on the men of that generation. He speaks of that wherein both the profane scoffers and those scoffed at were concerned, and that as Jews; — some of them believing, others opposing the faith. Now, there was no particular concernment of that generation in that sin, nor in that scoffing, as to the day of judgment in general; but there was a peculiar relief for the one and a peculiar dread for the other at hand, in the destruction of the Jewish nation; and, besides, an ample testimony, both to the one and the other, of the power and dominion of the Lord Jesus Christ; — which was the thing in question between them.

    (2.) Peter tells them, that, after the destruction and judgment that he speaks of, verse 13, “We, according to his promise, look for new 135heavens and a new earth,” etc. They had this expectation. But what is that promise? where may we find it? Why, we have it in the very words and letter, Isa. lxv. 17. Now, when shall this be that God will create these “new heavens and new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness?” Saith Peter, “It shall be after the coming of the Lord, after that judgment and destruction of ungodly men, who obey not the gospel, that I foretell.” But now it is evident, from this place of Isaiah, with chap. lxvi. 21, 22, that this is a prophecy of gospel times only; and that the planting of these new heavens is nothing but the creation of gospel ordinances, to endure for ever. The same thing is so expressed, Heb. xii. 26–28.
     
  2. Iconoclast

    Iconoclast Well-Known Member
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    The New Heaven and New Earth (Article).pdf

    As we study the meaning of these Greek adjectives, we should also consider the Isaiah passages (65:17 and 66:22) and the Hebrew word translated “new.” The word is שׁחד) hadash). It is believed that Isaiah’s meaning for hadash is “a miraculous transformation… to be miraculously renewed.”

    16 However, that hadash should be translated “new” in these passages is affirmed by an overwhelming array of witnesses. The adjective translated “new” is thus considered “new” both in the sense of recent or fresh (as the opposite of old) and in the sense of something not previously existing.
    17 Lexicons agree that hadash is new; fresh, unheard of;
    18 new;
    19 new, new thing, fresh;
    20 new, fresh;
    21 new, recent, fresh.
    22 The word occurs 53 times in the Old Testament. Of these 53 occurrences, only one suggests the possibility of a thing being “renewed,” but it would probably be better translate “fresh” (Lamentations 3:22-23).
    23 The remaining 52 occurrences are undoubtedly best translated as new, fresh, recent, or unheard of. In fact, that hadash is translated “new” in these 52 verses is the consensus among all major English translations. Moreover, “It is also noteworthy that שׁחד is rendered by νεος only 4x, but by καινος in almost every other instance
    ”24 which again speaks to the fact that kainos can mean “new” as well as “renewed.

    ”25 It is also interesting to note that Isaiah used the words bara (“I create;” 65:17) and asah (“I will make;” 66:22). Bara is frequently found in parallel to asah (Is 41:20; 43:7; 45:7, 12; Amos 4:13).

    26 Isaiah even places these words together on one occasion in 45:18: “God, Who formed (bara) the earth and made (asah) it…
    ”27 When Isaiah desired to use a verb conveying the idea of renewing, he did so. On two occasions (40:31 and 41:1), Isaiah used the verb halaph, which means to renew (NKJV; ESV). Isaiah also could have used the verb form of hadash (see 1 Sam 11:14; Ps 51:10; Lam 5:21). Instead, Isaiah used verbs which convey the idea of creation ex nihilo (see Gen 1:1; 2:3; Isa 40:26; 42:5). In 40:26 and 42:5, Isaiah obviously refers to creation from nothing. For 65:17 to mean renew, it would be contrary not only to the normal usage of the hadash in the OT, but also to the normal usage of the verbs bara and asah in the OT in general and in Isaiah in particular. The Lord, through Isaiah, is clearly using the language of creation to announce a new heavens and new earth.
     
    #3 Iconoclast, Jan 24, 2021
    Last edited: Jan 24, 2021
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