Hi, Ive just started studying 1 Peter, and the question as to whom the book is addressed has come up. "to the chosen exiles of the Diaspora" seems to be the Greek, making the recipients similar to those James addresses. The Diaspora is also mentioned in John 7:35 as referring especially to the Jewish Diaspora. If then it is addressed to the Jewish Diaspora (in keeping with Peters ministry to Jews as in Gal 2:7-8) then Peter is truly addressing people who are exiles. He then takes this experience of living as exiles and uses their life-experience to teach spiritual truths. They know what it is like to be exiles, so he uses this as a starting point. Via their new-birth (1:3, 23), they are now exiles from heaven, where their true citizenship is. As exiles, they are not to assimilate into this world. 1:17, 2:11. Equally, as exiles, they have learnt to obey the laws of their true land as well as those of their place of residence. Responsa literature and keeping the Laws of Moses, circumcision etc. set them apart from their neighbors, and so too, Peter says they should now, as exiles from the Kingdom of Heaven, submit to God's commands re governments, employers, husbands and wives, elders and younger men. Peter, the disciple of Jesus, knew that the Kingdom of Heaven was a central theme of Jesus, and it was breaking in and present where ever people obeyed God (store up treasure in Heaven etc.). 2:9-10 also speaks to the readership. Here Peter seems to be bouncing off Hosea 1:8-10, to declare through Jesus, that the curse is ended. The promises of God have found their yes and amen through Jesus. They are called, not to go back to Jerusalem, but to declare His praises and to live good lives among the pagans, so that they also may glorify God. That is, through Jesus, their identity is affirmed and expanded. Interestingly, Peter does not mention diet or circumcision or Mosaic laws, but does mention the Temple. Here he parallels Hebrews (as does the exile theme in Hebrews 11:13). 1 Peter 2:5-6 also parallels the Essene Manual of Discipline 8:4-10. This had been written to Jews who had been exiled from the Temple in Jerusalem. In affirming this, Peter again shows his Jewish Christian readers that their task is not to go back to the Temple in Jerusalem, but to become a Temple built on and into Jesus. Hebrews 13, 14-15 likewise places living without a lasting city, but seeking the city that is to come, with the idea of offering up a sacrifice of praise (based on a Hebrew word play also found in the DSS). (The Midrash Rabbah Leviticus IX:7. also states that in the Days of Messiah, all sacrifices will be done away with, except the sacrifice of praise This is taught on the Midrash on the inauguration of Aaron’s priesthood; “R. Phinehas and R. Levi and R. Johanan said in the name of R. Menahem of Gallia: ‘In the Time to Come all sacrifices will be annulled, but that of thanksgiving will not be annulled, and all prayers will be annulled, but [that of] Thanksgiving will not be annulled.’” ). As Hebrews likewise deals with Jewish Christians who have been banned from the Temple, assuring them that in Jesus, they have access to a better sacrifice, priesthood and temple), the parallels between Hebrews and 1 Peter again point to a Jewish Christian audience. For me, seeing 1 Peter as written to Jewish exiles of the Diaspora therefore seems to help understand the letter, affirms Peter's primary task, shows Peter relating to real people's life experience and reinterpreting it through Jesus, and makes sense of the instructions and usage of the temple imagery. What do others think?