From the same teaching as the previous OP....this topic resurfaces on BB; THE QUESTION OF FOREKNOWLEDGE443 What of foreknowledge? Divine election based on foreseen faith is election by foreknowledge [mere prescience]. What is the biblical teaching concerning the foreknowledge of God? The biblical usage must determine the exact significance of the term. Divine foreknowledge is not mere prescience [to know beforehand] or omniscience [to know all things, including those things that are only contingent], but necessarily involves the reality of decree or predestination. It is not merely contingent knowledge, but refers to whom or what God has rendered certain and therefore foreknows in a certain and intimate sense. Note must be taken that it is not merely what God knows, but also whom he knows. Foreknowledge then necessarily implies a personal or intimate relationship when used of persons. Divine election, it is asserted by some, is based upon the foreknowledge of God (cf. Rom. 8:29; 11:2; 1 Pet. 1:2; Acts 2:23), that is, God foresaw what was going to happen and laid his plans accordingly. It may be answered that: • foreknowledge is not synonymous with omniscience. It is concerned, not with contingency, but with certainty (Acts 15:18; Rom. 8:29–30), and thus implies a knowledge of what has been rendered certain. • Acts 2:23 would make foreknowledge dependent upon God’s “determinate counsel” by the grammatical construction which combines both together as one thought with “foreknowledge” referring to and enforcing the previous term.444 443 For a thorough discussion of predestination and foreknowledge, see Appendix 1. 444“ ...th/| w`risme,nh| boulh/| kai. prognw,sei tou/ qeou/...” The construction is that of the combined use of the articular and anarthrous connected with a single definite article and the co– ordinate conjunction kai,, both substantives being of the same case and number. The second term, “foreknowledge,” thus refers to and further enforces the first, i.e., “determinate counsel”. 167 • foreknowledge is related to the Old Testament term “to know”445 and implies an intimate knowledge of and relation to its object (Cf. Gen. 4:1; Amos 3:2). The passages in the New Testament (Rom. 8:29; 11:2; 1 Pet. 1:2) all speak of persons who are foreknown, implying much more than mere prescience or omniscience—implying a relationship that is both certain and intimate.446 The only example of things being foreknown is clearly based on Divine determination (Acts 15:18).447 • To base God’s eternal purpose on mere foreknowledge [mere prescience or omniscience], i.e., that he saw what was going to occur and laid his plans accordingly, would make God relative to the impersonal, amoral force of fate, chance or luck; would rob him of his omnipotence and make him finite; would take Divine election from its proper biblical, causative context of Divine love; fragment the eternal redemptive purpose, and rob election of its comforting and encouraging character.448 The one who would base Divine election on foresight would in reality be the true fatalist or determinist.