For the longest time, Ephesians 1 has been a main stay for Calvinists. So frequently, we think this is referring to the entire church, specifically verses 3-12. Read verses 3-12 and follow the personal pronouns of who the "us" and "we" are. The text I am going to ask you to consider will be the following. Ephesians 1:1-14, 2:19-22 and 3:1-7 I'll be using these texts for the force of my argument. Verse 4, "...just as He chose us in Him before the the foundation of the world..." (First note; We ask, who is the "us". The "us" in him does not neccesarily describe the "extent" in him. I believe this will be clearly descerned later in this passage) Verse 5 "He predestined us to adoption as sons... according to the good pleasure of his will." (Whoever "us" is was predestined according to his good pleasure) Verse 9 "He made known to us the mystery of His will..." (It was to the "us" the mystery of His will was made known. Compare this to Ephesians 3:1-7. Paul speaks first of his stewardship which is for the gentiles which was given to him by God. Then in verse 3 we read "that by revelation there was made known to me the mystery, as I wrote before in brief. He wrote before in brief the mystery in Eph. 1:9. In verse 4, Paul begins to introduce this mystery in more detail. In verse 5, who it is that knows this mystery is revealed. "which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to His holy apostles and prophets in the spirit." Who is it that the mystery was revealed to? The apostles and prophets. Who is the "us" in 1:9 who "He made known to us the mystery of his will?" The Apostles. The "us" is identified hear as the apostles and prophets and who the "us" is hasn't changed. This mystery isn't given to the entire church, it was given to the apostles. verse 10 "with a view to an administration suitable to the fulness of the times, the summing up of all things in Christ..." (The administration was given to the "us".Compare this to Ephesians 2:19-22 Specifically, concerning the administration. 19. "So then, you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God's household, 20. having been built upon the foundation of the apostles, and prophets..." the administration of the building up of the church, specifically the gentiles was not given the church, much less the gentile church itself. The text clearly shows the administration, the building up of the church was given to the apostles and prophets. The prophets may be more indirect but then, the apostles were built up from them.) Verse 12 "to the end that we who were the first to hope in Christ should be to the praise of His glory." (Now this verse, isolated by itself doesn't scream apostles but it does demand a limit. This makes it absolutely impossible to think of this verse as referring to the entire church. Who was the first to hope in Christ? Well, you could argue MANY potential first, I admitt, but because of that, SOMEONE is left out. This shows there was a SECOND to hope in Christ which would not be among this "us". Whether you want to say its the apostles and prophets, up to the entire early church or even later, not everyone is the first to hope in Christ. Verse 13 "In Him you also, after listening to the message of truth, the gospel of your salvation- having also believed, you were sealed in Him with the Holy Spirit of promise..." (If Paul had been referring to the Ephesian Church, he wouldn't have said "you also" hear. He wouldn't have said, "having also believed". Paul is obviously not speaking of the entire church throughout time.) This passage of scripture is certainly not a Calvinist strong hold. Calvinists may not justly use this passage to speak of a Calvinist Elect church.