From Wikipedia: Secular Games (Ludi Saeculares, originally Terentini). These were celebrated at Rome for three days and nights to mark the commencement of a new saeculum or generation... in 304 (which should have been 314) Maximian intended to hold a celebration, but does not appear to have done so. From this time nothing more is heard of the secular games, until they were revived in the year 1300 as the jubilees instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludi_saeculares The wikipedia entry on Boniface VIII reads in part: The feud between the two reached its peak in the early 14th century when Philip began to launch a strong anti-papal campaign against Boniface. On November 18, 1302, Boniface issued one of the most important papal bulls of Catholic History: Unam Sanctum. It declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the church. In response, Guillaume de Nogaret, Philip's chief minister, denounced Boniface as a heretical criminal to the French clergy. In 1303, Philip and Nogaret were excommunicated. However, an army led by Nogaret and Sciarra Colonna of the Colonna family surprised Boniface at his retreat in Anagni. The King and the Colonnas demanded that he resign, to which Boniface VIII responded that he would 'sooner die'. Boniface was beaten badly and nearly executed but was released from captivity after three days. He died a month later, on October 11, 1303. After the humiliating ordeal of Boniface and Philip, no popes would ever again challenge or seriously threaten kings and emperors despite further excommunications and interdictions. In the future, the church would see itself becoming subordinate to the growing power of the European nation-states and their secular leaders, and the church's secular power would forever be lost. It is also interesting to note that this was the first event that marked the downfall of the the church's prestige, and the decline of its prestige and advertisement of its corruptions led to the Reformation. Bear in mind that in 1304, France actually stole the papacy, the "Avignon Captivity", for 75 years. So, soon after reviving the "Secular Games" (please recall the definition of "Secular", and that they are a pagan festival), the Pope's quarrels with European leaders led to his humiliation, a great Schism in the Church between the Gaulic Church and the Roman, and the beginning of the Reformation Schism. If Almighty God speaks through history, how much clearer can it get??