To many a Southerner The Late Unpleasantness is considered to be the Second War of American Independence. However, to many on the opposing side, it is considered the War of the Rebellion. Me, I'm a Californian not a Northerner or a Yankee. But as a Californian, I'm a Union man. Many groan about the depredations of the Union Army in the South, all I can say is what part of W A R don't you understand. Was the South any different for Europe during the Napoleonic or Thirty Years War? Was the South any different that the Scottish Highlands after the Risings of '15 and '45? Or the Irish situation? Yes, slavery was the proximate cause of the war. But, the real cause was the shift in what made an American an American. Men like Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson saw themselves to be an American because they were Virginians. Once, the Commonwealth succeeded from the Union they thought themselves to be freed from any ties to the Union. One might think of this as a Federal Identity. Men like Duncan Stivens, a Illinois farmer, saw themselves to be Americans because they were born in the United States. Many like him had been born in another state but then moved West. One might think of this as a National Identity.