The Codices Sinaiticus and Vaticanus (both 4th Century) These two are considered to be the principal Greek Manuscripts, the basis of the Greek texts underlying most of the modern versions in the world, not just in the English language. Much has been written on these two Manuscripts, which can be found by doing a search in a search engine like Google. I would like to mention something about the circumstances in which these two Manuscripts were copied. The date for both Manuscripts is generally agreed to be the middle of the fourth century. In about A.D. 331, the Emperor, Constantine made a request for “fifty copies of sacred Scripture…to be written on fine parchment in a legible manner, and in a convenient portable form, by professional scribes, thoroughly accomplished in their art” (Eusebius, Life of Constantine, iv.36).. These Manuscripts were to be “bound volumes, of threefold and fourfold forms” There are several scholars that believe that the Codices Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, would have been part of these fifty ordered. This is confirmed by the Palaeographer, T C Skeat, of the British Museum, who is an expert in his field. (T.C. Skeat "The Codex Sinaiticus, the Codex Vaticanus and Constantine.", JTS 50 (1999) 583 – 625). We also have Dr Frederic Kenyon, who was Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts at the British Museum, and an authority on Textual Criticism, who wrote: “On the one hand there is the statement of Eusebius (Vit. Constant. iv.36) that the Emperor Constantine about the year 331 ordered fifty copies of the Scriptures on vellum for the Churches in his new capital; on the other hand, there is the statement of Jerome that the (papyrus) volumes in the library of Pamphilus at Caesarea were replaced by copies on vellum through the efforts of Acacius and Euzious (circ. 350)” (Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, p.41). We must not forget, that Eusebius was a very good friend of Pamphilus, who owned this library in Caesarea, where a large number of manuscripts and works were stored. Pamphilus himself, was a disciple of the heretic, Origen, who is noted for making marginal amendments in manuscripts in his possession! Origen, of course denied the orthodox doctrine of the Holy Trinity, reducing both the Son and Holy Spirit to created beings! Further, both the names mentioned by Jerome who were responsible for the copying of manuscripts, Acacius and Euzious, were themselves both leaders in the Arian party. The former an Arian “theologian”, and the latter, a “bishop”! This is very important to note, since there can be no doubt that their Arian “theology” would have influenced them in their “copying” of the manuscripts! This is no mere assumption, as there are a number on instances where the heretics were involved in actually corrupting the text, especially of the New Testament. Thus, we have at a very early time, “Besides the undersigned and, to a great extent, unavoidable differences subsisting between manuscripts of the New Testament, within a century of its been written, the wilful corruptions introduced by the heretics soon became a cause of loud complaint in the primitive ages of the Church. Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, addressing the Church of Rome and Soter its Bishop (A.D. 168-176), complains that even his own letters have been tampered with.” (Dr F H Scrivener, A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, vol.II, p.259) Add to this the fact, that, “Lucian...priest of Antioch, and founded a school…was martyred at Nicomedia, 7th January(A.D.312). His life’s work was a revised text of the Old and New Testaments. His recension of the New Testament spread from Antioch to Constantinople, and is probably the parent of the great bulk of our Greek MSS” (Dr A Souter; The Text and Canon of the New Testament, p.170. A view also held by Bruce Metzger) Who is this Lucian? Church history informs us that on of his star pupils at his school, was none other than the chief heretic during the fourth century, Arius! Arius was taught his “Christology” by Lucian, who is known as the “father of Arianism”! The bottom line is this. There is no doubt that form a very early time, the heretics tampered with the Holy Word of God, and in some cases, got away with it. This is very evident in the reading of the majority of modern versions, which tend to agree with each other, for example, in cases like 1 Timothy 3:16, and 1 John 5:7. This evidence as it stands, as admitted by scholars like Bruce Metzger, that the bulk of our Greek manuscripts, the basis of the modern versions, are copies from the work of Lucian!