15 But not as the offense, so also is the free gift. For if through the offense of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, has abounded to many. 16 And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offenses to justification. 17 For if by one man’s offense death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.) Paul distinguishes between the immediate and continuing differences between the actions of one man ( Adam or Christ) upon many in verses 15-16. The offence of one man resulted in many "BE dead". In direct contrast by one man came the gift of grace to many (v. 15) "IN LIFE" thus spiritual life. So the initial consequence of what each man did is in contrast - spiritual death versus gift of grace or justification of life - spiritual life. Thus this does not refer to physical death. This refers to the initial consequence whereas verse 16 contrasts the initial consequences with the continuing consquence of each man's action. The continuing consequence of Adam's offense is judgement of many to condemnation, ("condemned already") whereas the continuing consequence of Christ's obedience is the free gift to many unto justification "IN LIFE". Verse 17 contrasts the reign of death versus grace due to these representative men's actions. Deaith reigned by one through his one sin - Adam. However, grace reigns "IN LIFE" only for those who "receive abundance of grace." Here is another marked distinction between the "many" effected by Adam's sin versus the many effected by Christ's obedience. Death comes automatically by the physical relationship of many to Adam by natural birth. However, the benefits of Christ must be received by the "many" whom Christ represented. It does not come automatically by any physical relationship to Christ. The only way for "many" to have any relationship with Christ is by new birth (Jn. 3:6). Grace is a "gift" that must be received in order for it to reign "IN LIFE" whereas "death" reigns automatically from natural birth. Verses 18-19 change from "many" to "all" because verse 17 distinguishes between "many" wheren death automatically reigns by natural relationship whereas the benefits of Christ only reign "IN LIFE" due to an act of grace or the gift of grace received by "many." Hence, "all" in reference to Adam in verses 18-19 refer to those in a NATURAL relationship with Adam whereas "all" in reference to Christ in verse 18-19 refer to those in a GRACE relationship with Christ that must be received after natural birth. Paul makes this clear in 1 Cor 15 where Adam and the Second Adam are again placed in contrast and where "all" in Adam is distinguished from "all" in Christ (1 Cor. 15:22 and this distinction is revealed in the NATURAL body received from Adam in this lfie versus the SUPERNATURAL body received from those "in Christ" in the resurrection. CONCLUSION: The arminian argument that our interpretation of all mankind having sinned when Adam sinned demands universal salvation is demonstrated to be a faulty argument based upon verse 17 and 1 Cor. 15 that the benefits of Christ must be received IN ADDITION as a "gift of grace" to what came naturally by relationship to Adam.