In Romans 11, Paul teaches, " I am talking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch as I am the apostle to the Gentiles, I make much of my ministry in the hope that I may somehow arouse my own people to envy and save some of them. If indeed human will doesn't play an active role in the salvation process why would Paul expect those Jews who have been hardened during his time to possibly be aroused by envy and turn to God for salvation? Clearly Paul believes his ministry to the Gentile people could make some Jews start thinking, "Hey, look how those unclean Gentiles have changed, they are now living well and loving others, I want what they have." So, I have two questions for consideration: 1. Aren't these the same hardened Jews Paul talked about in Romans 9, in which Calvinists interpret to mean non-elect without hope of salvation? So, how could he think they might be saved later if He believed as Calvinists do? 2. If Paul believes in an effectual calling, why would he even mention something like envy which is clearly meant to provoke man's will? What role could envy play if man's will can only be altered by effectual regeneration?